·        
ABSTRACT

 

The design and implementation of an automated fluid
observation and controlling method utilizing an affordable fluid flow sensor
and the microcontroller are presented here which has the ability to assist the
health care provider to control the saline circulation rate using Matrix keypad
or Android phone. The Arduino Mega (2560) platform has been used as controlling
unit for providing necessary control along with a 3×4 matrix keypad and WiFi
module to control the drop per minute manually and by using an android phone.
The designed flow sensor will be hooked up to the drip chamber of the saline
container to determine the saline flow rate as well as an accurate number of a
drop of the saline. The obtained outputs from the sensor are continuously
checked with the given command and if any mismatch is found, the
microcontroller moves the servo motor to modify the circulation rate to balance
with assigned command.  A speech recognition technique is
also proposed through which the concerned message is either sent to relatives
or the nurse/doctor, depending upon the calculated frequency of the spoken words
(message).

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·        
KEYWORDS

 

Arduino
mega 2560; Android; TCP/IP, IoT, NaCl, Wi-Fi, IR Sensor, Servo motor, Flow
Sensor.

 

 

·        
INTRODUCTION

Conventional
methods used for health care are becoming outdated. In today’s hectic world and
escalating death events, the need for developing a system that monitors
remotely located patient is a must. Extraordinary success in medical technology
has been achieved due to the combination of medical and engineering
disciplines. Internet of Things (IoT) plays a significant role in health care
monitoring. It opens the door for direct connectivity between the physical
objects and into the computer-based systems.

            Normal saline is a sterile solution
of sodium chloride (NaCl) in standard water. Saline is often used in
intravenous infusion in dehydration, nasal irritability and a variety of other
problems. The quantity of saline needed depends on the state of the patient.
Thus it is very crucial to measure the saline flow rate for each patient
respectively. It is necessary to monitor the saline flow at regular intervals.
Usually this is monitored by the nurses or doctors manually. Also the current
methodology for saline level tracking is time consuming and annoying. It may
happen that due to negligence, forgetfulness, hectic schedule, less number of
working staff, the concerned person may forget to change the saline bottle as
soon as it is consumed. As soon as the saline bottle is empty, blood flows back
to saline bottle due to difference in blood pressure and the pressure in the
inner part of the empty saline bottle. This may cause reverse flow of the
blood. Therefore there is a need for automated saline flow control and saline
level monitoring.

            Growth of technology is at its peak.
The main aim of this paper is to propose a system which can measure the saline
flow rate and develop an automated infusion rate system remotely. It can also
monitor the saline level. When it is below the critical level, immediately an
alert is sent to the concerned authority and relatives of the patient through the
use of internet. We also propose using speech recognition technique and
depending on the frequency the concerned message is either sent to relatives or
the nurse/doctor.

The
proposed system is formed on the following technologies:

                                                       
i.           
Arduino mega(2560)- the controlling
unit

                                                     
ii.           
Wi-Fi- for connection with the
server

                                                   
iii.           
Servo Motor- for controlling the
rate flow

                                                   
iv.           
IR Sensor- sensing the critical
level

                                                     
v.           
Keypad matrix- backup module if
connectivity is lost

The
important idea of the proposed system is to build a cost-effective, sound,
simple, easy, convenient and mainly cost-effective system. The doctor/nurse can
monitor the flow rate from anywhere and also are informed about the saline
level. The constant monitoring of saline flow by visiting the patient is
avoided through remote monitoring.

 

·        
EXISTING APPROACHES

            As the technology is improving,
progress is taking place in every field. There has been research on automated
saline monitoring for betterment of patient’s health care. There is a proposed
system of using Arduino Mega (2560) as a platform for controlling saline flow
circulation using matrix keypad or Android phone. Bluetooth module is used to
control the drop per minute flow using an android device.1

            This paper 2 gives the insight of
sending the information wirelessly to the central monitor placed at nurse’s
monitoring room. The central system receives data from several monitoring
devices and gives the analysis to the host personal computer (PC). The system
removes the need for continuously on sight observation.

            This paper 3 provides you to check
the glucose bottle level. The system uses load cell to detect the level. The
weight of the bottle is calculated with the help of load cell and a load cell
amplifier. The weight predicted is displayed on the Liquid Crystal Display
(LCD). When the critical level is reached sms alert is sent through the GSM
modem.

            Another paper 4 uses a spring as a
weight sensor to check the saline level. The weight of the filled and empty
bottle is differentiated by the spring. Alarm is placed near to the nurse to
alert about the saline level when it reaches it’s critical level. LED lights of
green and red colour are used to indicate safe and low level respectively.

            Another approach to indicate saline
level is checked by using IR sensors 5. IR sensors are located at critical
level and also to sense saline completion status. DC motor is used to cause the
movements in the spring. According to the commands to the DC motor the spring
will be stretched and with the help of clamp it will pinch the intravenous tube
to prevent reverse flow of the blood.

 

 

·        
SYSTEM
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN CONSIDERATION

 

A.    
BLOCK
DIAGRAM

The
block diagram of proposed system is shown in figure 1. The system will be able
to control the flow rate automatically according to the command given to the
device by the user through keypad/android phone. A flow sensor will be
developed and employed to the drip chamber of the saline bottle to determine
the circulation rate of the saline.

Once command will be given to the device it will
continuously check the flow rate and balance with the command given by the
user. A water drop flow detector sensor will detect the water drop accurately.
And a speech recognition system will be helpful to convey the message from the
patient to the relatives or nurse/doctor depending upon the frequency of the
words.

                                                               

 

                                                                                 

 

FIGURE 1

 

 

 

B.    
IMPLEMENTATION OF PROPOSED SYSTEM

The proposed idea aims to implement a saline
monitoring and control system, which is automation, cost-effective, reliable
and convenient. The system has been implemented using Arduino Mega platform
based on ATmega2560, a keypad 3×4 has been interfaced with the developed system
for giving the command to the user along with a 16×2 LCD monitor to monitor the
information about current flow rate. The system has employed a WiFi module
known as ESP8266 to receive a command from android paired phone.

Flow sensor will detect drops of liquid and the detected
signal will be transmitted to the microcontroller. The microcontroller will
calculate the time between two drops to determine drop per second and give the
command to LCD display for displaying the fluid flow rate. According to the
command given by the user via Android operated smartphone using WiFi or manual
keypad, the microcontroller will compare the given command with the actual flow
rate.

According to the command, the microcontroller will
control a servo to rotate a valve clockwise or anti-clockwise rotation to
increase or decrease the gap between valve and pipe for controlling the liquid
flow. The valve will be mounted on the shaft of the servo and able to increase
its depth smoothly from 00 and become about the diameter of the
saline pipe at 1800.When the servo will rotate from 00 to
1800 the saline pipe will be pressed and released to control the
liquid flow.

The
speech recognition system will be helpful to convey the message from the
patient to the relatives or nurse/doctor depending upon the frequency of the
words and comparison of those frequencies with the threshold frequency to take
the required decision of sending the message to the particular receiver.

                        

 

 

 

FIGURE 2

 

 

·        
HARDWARE DESIGN

Arduino Mega (2560)

The
Arduino Mega (2560) is a microcontroller board which has 54 digital
input/output pins 16 analog inputs, 4 UARTs(hardware serial ports), a 16 MHz
crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header and a reset
button. The Mega 2560 can be powered by USB or an external power. The source of
power is selected automatically. External (non-USB) power can come either from
an AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery.

Arduino
Mega is used to display the text “Enter the saline drop rate” on an Android
phone so that user can enter number of drops per minute. Arduino also
continuously reads the saline rate from the flow sensor.

The
ESP8266 WIFI Module is a self-contained System on Chip (SOC) with integrated
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol stack that
can give any microcontroller access to your WIFI network. The ESP8266 is an
extremely cost effective board. Arduino has good storage capability and on
board processing which helps it to integrate with sensors.

WIFI
module is used to provide connectivity across the globe. It is used to connect
the Arduino Mega 2560 to the software application.

Servo Motor

A servo
motor is a linear actuator or rotary actuator which serves for exact control of
linear or angular position, acceleration and velocity. It consists of a motor
coupled to a sensor for position feedback. It is a self-contained electrical
device, which rotates parts of a machine with high efficiency and great
precision. The output shaft of this motor can be moved to a particular angle.

The
servo motor is used to control the saline flow rate. The servo motor is able to
rotate from 0o to 180o to control the flow rate. If the
saline flow rate is more than that specified in the command then the servo
motor rotates anti-clockwise to reduce the flow rate and if the actual flow
rate is less than that specified in the command then servo motor rotates
clockwise to reduce the gap between the valve and pipe. When actual flow rate
is same as the one specified in the command, then servo motor stops to keep
flow rate same.

Flow Sensor

Flow
sensor consists of two metal wires arranged in parallel very close to each
other. Flow sensor is used to detect the saline flow from the saline bottle.
The flow sensor provides a digital pulse each time a certain amount of saline
passes through the pipe. The output can easily be connected to a
microcontroller for monitoring saline flow.

Keypad Matrix

A keypad
matrix consists of a set of push buttons or switches which are arranged in a
matrix format of rows and columns. These keypads are available in different
configurations.

We have
used a 4×4 matrix configuration. Keypad Matrix is used to take the user inputs.
In case Android phone is discharged or is not working, then the user can use
Keypad Matrix to provide the saline drop rate.

IR Sensor

An
Infrared (IR) Sensor is an electronic instrument which is used to sense certain
characteristics of its surroundings by either emitting and/or detecting
infrared radiation. Infrared (IR) Sensor senses the saline drops from saline
bottle when it reaches a particular critical level.  After sensing that the saline in the saline
bottle has come to a critical level, it transmits a signal to the sensor
receiver.

 

 

 

·        
CONCLUSION

 

Due to a combination of the two important
disciplines of medicine and engineering, the medical facility and treatment
have achieved a rapid advancement and development. The progress in medical care
has been rapid. In order to design a fluid control device, the main difficult
was to design a device which responses correctly as well as rapidly and design
of sensor to detect the fluid drop. However in this project flow sensor which
consists of two metal wires were placed much closer to each other. This sensor was
very sensitive and was able to detect any types of fluid with different colors
and responded very quickly as compared to the sensor available in the market.
The device can be used in the medical application as well as in chemical lab
where the very accurate flow of fluid is required. The device is reliable and
therefore, can be used effectively. Once the command is given to the device it
keeps the flow rate constant regardless of the level of water from the patient.
This low-cost medical device may have potential use for patient health care
even in the absence of hospital staff with the help of speech recognition
system.

 

 

·        
REFERENCES

 

1 C.C. Gavimath, Krishnamurthy Bhat, C.L.
Chayalakshmi, R. S. Hooli and B.E.Ravishankera, “Design And Development Of
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Device”, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Applications, vol. 3, no.
1, pp. 277-281, 2012.

 

2 Manoj Kumar Swain, Santosh Kumar Mallick, Rati
Ranjan Sabat, “Smart Saline Level Indicatorcum Controller”,
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Management (IJAIEM), vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 299-301, 2015.

 

3 Mansi G. Chidgopkar, Aruna P. Phatale,
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4 I.S.Tawade, M.S.Pendse, H.P.Chaudhari
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Sensor,

Microcontroller and Rf Zigbee Module”,
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5 Priyadharshini.R , Mithuna.S , Vasanth Kumar.U,
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6 J. Singh, M. Tiwari and M. Shelar, “ZigBee
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7 A. P.P.Belgali, “Implementation of GSM
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2015.

 

8 Anbumani.S , Kavin.R , Saranya.A, Dineshkumar.T,
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9 “Normal Saline Solution”,
Paramedicine.com, 2017. Online.
Available:http://www.paramedicine.com/pmc/Normal_Saline_Solution.

 

10 “Property and composition of
solutions”,
Intranet.tdmu.edu.ua,2017.Online.Available:http://intranet.tdmu.edu.ua/data/kafedra/internal/zag_him/classes_stud/en/med/lik/ptn/medical%20chemistry/1%20course/01.%20Solution.%20Properties%20of%20solution..htm.

 

11 “Arduino – Arduino Board Mega2560”,
Arduino.cc Online. Available: www.arduino.cc/en/Main/ArduinoBoardMega2560.

 

12 “HC-03/05 Embedded Bluetooth Serial
Communication Module AT command set”, http://www.linotux.ch/, 2011.
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