· ABSTRACT The design and implementation of an automated fluidobservation and controlling method utilizing an affordable fluid flow sensorand the microcontroller are presented here which has the ability to assist thehealth care provider to control the saline circulation rate using Matrix keypador Android phone. The Arduino Mega (2560) platform has been used as controllingunit for providing necessary control along with a 3×4 matrix keypad and WiFimodule to control the drop per minute manually and by using an android phone.The designed flow sensor will be hooked up to the drip chamber of the salinecontainer to determine the saline flow rate as well as an accurate number of adrop of the saline.
The obtained outputs from the sensor are continuouslychecked with the given command and if any mismatch is found, themicrocontroller moves the servo motor to modify the circulation rate to balancewith assigned command. A speech recognition technique isalso proposed through which the concerned message is either sent to relativesor the nurse/doctor, depending upon the calculated frequency of the spoken words(message). · KEYWORDS Arduinomega 2560; Android; TCP/IP, IoT, NaCl, Wi-Fi, IR Sensor, Servo motor, FlowSensor. · INTRODUCTION Conventionalmethods used for health care are becoming outdated.
In today’s hectic world andescalating death events, the need for developing a system that monitorsremotely located patient is a must. Extraordinary success in medical technologyhas been achieved due to the combination of medical and engineeringdisciplines. Internet of Things (IoT) plays a significant role in health caremonitoring. It opens the door for direct connectivity between the physicalobjects and into the computer-based systems. Normal saline is a sterile solutionof sodium chloride (NaCl) in standard water. Saline is often used inintravenous infusion in dehydration, nasal irritability and a variety of otherproblems.
The quantity of saline needed depends on the state of the patient.Thus it is very crucial to measure the saline flow rate for each patientrespectively. It is necessary to monitor the saline flow at regular intervals.Usually this is monitored by the nurses or doctors manually. Also the currentmethodology for saline level tracking is time consuming and annoying. It mayhappen that due to negligence, forgetfulness, hectic schedule, less number ofworking staff, the concerned person may forget to change the saline bottle assoon as it is consumed. As soon as the saline bottle is empty, blood flows backto saline bottle due to difference in blood pressure and the pressure in theinner part of the empty saline bottle. This may cause reverse flow of theblood.
Therefore there is a need for automated saline flow control and salinelevel monitoring. Growth of technology is at its peak.The main aim of this paper is to propose a system which can measure the salineflow rate and develop an automated infusion rate system remotely. It can alsomonitor the saline level. When it is below the critical level, immediately analert is sent to the concerned authority and relatives of the patient through theuse of internet. We also propose using speech recognition technique anddepending on the frequency the concerned message is either sent to relatives orthe nurse/doctor.Theproposed system is formed on the following technologies: i.
Arduino mega(2560)- the controllingunit ii. Wi-Fi- for connection with theserver iii. Servo Motor- for controlling therate flow iv. IR Sensor- sensing the criticallevel v.
Keypad matrix- backup module ifconnectivity is lostTheimportant idea of the proposed system is to build a cost-effective, sound,simple, easy, convenient and mainly cost-effective system. The doctor/nurse canmonitor the flow rate from anywhere and also are informed about the salinelevel. The constant monitoring of saline flow by visiting the patient isavoided through remote monitoring. · EXISTING APPROACHES As the technology is improving,progress is taking place in every field. There has been research on automatedsaline monitoring for betterment of patient’s health care. There is a proposedsystem of using Arduino Mega (2560) as a platform for controlling saline flowcirculation using matrix keypad or Android phone. Bluetooth module is used tocontrol the drop per minute flow using an android device.
1 This paper 2 gives the insight ofsending the information wirelessly to the central monitor placed at nurse’smonitoring room. The central system receives data from several monitoringdevices and gives the analysis to the host personal computer (PC). The systemremoves the need for continuously on sight observation. This paper 3 provides you to checkthe glucose bottle level. The system uses load cell to detect the level. Theweight of the bottle is calculated with the help of load cell and a load cellamplifier.
The weight predicted is displayed on the Liquid Crystal Display(LCD). When the critical level is reached sms alert is sent through the GSMmodem. Another paper 4 uses a spring as aweight sensor to check the saline level. The weight of the filled and emptybottle is differentiated by the spring. Alarm is placed near to the nurse toalert about the saline level when it reaches it’s critical level. LED lights ofgreen and red colour are used to indicate safe and low level respectively. Another approach to indicate salinelevel is checked by using IR sensors 5.
IR sensors are located at criticallevel and also to sense saline completion status. DC motor is used to cause themovements in the spring. According to the commands to the DC motor the springwill be stretched and with the help of clamp it will pinch the intravenous tubeto prevent reverse flow of the blood. · SYSTEMANALYSIS AND DESIGN CONSIDERATION A.
BLOCKDIAGRAMTheblock diagram of proposed system is shown in figure 1. The system will be ableto control the flow rate automatically according to the command given to thedevice by the user through keypad/android phone. A flow sensor will bedeveloped and employed to the drip chamber of the saline bottle to determinethe circulation rate of the saline.Once command will be given to the device it willcontinuously check the flow rate and balance with the command given by theuser.
A water drop flow detector sensor will detect the water drop accurately.And a speech recognition system will be helpful to convey the message from thepatient to the relatives or nurse/doctor depending upon the frequency of thewords. FIGURE 1 B. IMPLEMENTATION OF PROPOSED SYSTEMThe proposed idea aims to implement a salinemonitoring and control system, which is automation, cost-effective, reliableand convenient. The system has been implemented using Arduino Mega platformbased on ATmega2560, a keypad 3×4 has been interfaced with the developed systemfor giving the command to the user along with a 16×2 LCD monitor to monitor theinformation about current flow rate. The system has employed a WiFi moduleknown as ESP8266 to receive a command from android paired phone. Flow sensor will detect drops of liquid and the detectedsignal will be transmitted to the microcontroller. The microcontroller willcalculate the time between two drops to determine drop per second and give thecommand to LCD display for displaying the fluid flow rate.
According to thecommand given by the user via Android operated smartphone using WiFi or manualkeypad, the microcontroller will compare the given command with the actual flowrate.According to the command, the microcontroller willcontrol a servo to rotate a valve clockwise or anti-clockwise rotation toincrease or decrease the gap between valve and pipe for controlling the liquidflow. The valve will be mounted on the shaft of the servo and able to increaseits depth smoothly from 00 and become about the diameter of thesaline pipe at 1800.
When the servo will rotate from 00 to1800 the saline pipe will be pressed and released to control theliquid flow.Thespeech recognition system will be helpful to convey the message from thepatient to the relatives or nurse/doctor depending upon the frequency of thewords and comparison of those frequencies with the threshold frequency to takethe required decision of sending the message to the particular receiver. FIGURE 2 · HARDWARE DESIGNArduino Mega (2560)TheArduino Mega (2560) is a microcontroller board which has 54 digitalinput/output pins 16 analog inputs, 4 UARTs(hardware serial ports), a 16 MHzcrystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header and a resetbutton.
The Mega 2560 can be powered by USB or an external power. The source ofpower is selected automatically. External (non-USB) power can come either froman AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery.ArduinoMega is used to display the text “Enter the saline drop rate” on an Androidphone so that user can enter number of drops per minute.
Arduino alsocontinuously reads the saline rate from the flow sensor.TheESP8266 WIFI Module is a self-contained System on Chip (SOC) with integratedTransmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol stack thatcan give any microcontroller access to your WIFI network. The ESP8266 is anextremely cost effective board. Arduino has good storage capability and onboard processing which helps it to integrate with sensors.WIFImodule is used to provide connectivity across the globe.
It is used to connectthe Arduino Mega 2560 to the software application.Servo MotorA servomotor is a linear actuator or rotary actuator which serves for exact control oflinear or angular position, acceleration and velocity. It consists of a motorcoupled to a sensor for position feedback. It is a self-contained electricaldevice, which rotates parts of a machine with high efficiency and greatprecision.
The output shaft of this motor can be moved to a particular angle.Theservo motor is used to control the saline flow rate. The servo motor is able torotate from 0o to 180o to control the flow rate. If thesaline flow rate is more than that specified in the command then the servomotor rotates anti-clockwise to reduce the flow rate and if the actual flowrate is less than that specified in the command then servo motor rotatesclockwise to reduce the gap between the valve and pipe. When actual flow rateis same as the one specified in the command, then servo motor stops to keepflow rate same.Flow SensorFlowsensor consists of two metal wires arranged in parallel very close to eachother.
Flow sensor is used to detect the saline flow from the saline bottle.The flow sensor provides a digital pulse each time a certain amount of salinepasses through the pipe. The output can easily be connected to amicrocontroller for monitoring saline flow.Keypad MatrixA keypadmatrix consists of a set of push buttons or switches which are arranged in amatrix format of rows and columns. These keypads are available in differentconfigurations. We haveused a 4×4 matrix configuration.
Keypad Matrix is used to take the user inputs.In case Android phone is discharged or is not working, then the user can useKeypad Matrix to provide the saline drop rate.IR SensorAnInfrared (IR) Sensor is an electronic instrument which is used to sense certaincharacteristics of its surroundings by either emitting and/or detectinginfrared radiation. Infrared (IR) Sensor senses the saline drops from salinebottle when it reaches a particular critical level.
After sensing that the saline in the salinebottle has come to a critical level, it transmits a signal to the sensorreceiver. · CONCLUSION Due to a combination of the two importantdisciplines of medicine and engineering, the medical facility and treatmenthave achieved a rapid advancement and development. The progress in medical carehas been rapid. In order to design a fluid control device, the main difficultwas to design a device which responses correctly as well as rapidly and designof sensor to detect the fluid drop. However in this project flow sensor whichconsists of two metal wires were placed much closer to each other. This sensor wasvery sensitive and was able to detect any types of fluid with different colorsand responded very quickly as compared to the sensor available in the market.
The device can be used in the medical application as well as in chemical labwhere the very accurate flow of fluid is required. The device is reliable andtherefore, can be used effectively. Once the command is given to the device itkeeps the flow rate constant regardless of the level of water from the patient.This low-cost medical device may have potential use for patient health careeven in the absence of hospital staff with the help of speech recognitionsystem.
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