· Social Cognition is the process ofinterpreting & remembering info about ourselves or other individuals· Impression Formation is the mentalprocess that develops judgments of another person. It’s a total overallimpression of another person based on what you first see, examples are asfollowso Gender o Raceo Ageo Dresso Attractiveness or Unattractiveness· Impression Management is whatinfluences the we see ourselves. When we get feedback from other people whenthey see the efforts we do we start to review our self-concepts. · Attribution there are the cause toexplain one’s own or another’s behavior. o Situational Attribution is a caused behaviorto an external cause or factor related to a situationo Dispositional Attributions behaviorto an internal cause like a personality trait o Self-serving Bias the tendency toattribute one’s successes and one’s failures that are the situational cause · Factors that influence attractiono Proximity (physical closeness)o Mere-Exposure Effect (tendency tofeel more positive toward a stimulus) o Reciprocity (we frequently likepeople we like us) o Halo Effect (we have a tendency wherewe assume that the person has positive or negative traits just because weobserve one major positive or negative trait o People of all ages tend to prefer togo for the physical attractiveness of people.
Like symmetrical faces since they are more sexually appealing. · Intimate Relationshipso Matching hypothesis choosing apartner that has similar to us as in physical & other thingso Evolutionary Psychologists when men& women prefer mates on the bias of what they can reproduce. Like menprefer young, attractive women. Women on the other had prefer men with a job& high status.o 4 qualities that are important in alife partner § Mutual attraction/love § Dependable character § Emotional stability & maturity § Pleasing disposition · Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Loveo 3 components that produce 7 kinds oflove § Intimacy (feelings that promotecloseness, boundedness, & connectedness) § Passion (romance, physical attraction& sexual consummation)§ Commitment (make a decision that youlove that person) · Conformity means the changing oradopting a behavior or an attitude to make the effort of blending in with thesocial norms of a group or meet the expectations of other people.o Social norms are the attitudes &standards of a behavior that is expected of members of a certain type of group.
· Deception is the key element thatwere in the studies of Milgram o Confederate (participant of anexperiment but assists the researcher) o Naive subject (the person is notaware that deception Is being used) · Compliance acting based on therequest of the other people · Foot in the door technique gainagreement to a small request then the person becomes more likely to agree to alarger request. · Door in the face technique they makelarge request and the expectation that the person will refuse it· Low ball technique when a personmakes an attractive initial offer just to get a person to agree with the action· Social Facilitation any positive ornegative effect on the performance when other people are present o Audience Effects (impact) o Coaction Effects (impact onperformance that are caused by the other people taking the same action)· Social loafing is when an individualcontribution to a group project that can’t be identified · Group Polarization that occurs afterthe discussion · Groupthink when the group desire tomaintain agreement taking other considerations · Social Roles define behaviors whenthe individual occupies a certain position in a group · Social identity often constructs agroup that insulates individual members against a stressor · Attitude has 3 components o Cognitive (thoughts & beliefs) o Emotional (feeling towards an object)o Behavioral (concerning actionstowards the object) · Some awareness of inconsistenciesbetween attitudes or between attitudes & behaviors o Reduce dissonance o Change in behavior o Change in attitudes o Explaining away the inconsistency o Minimizing its importance · 4 elements of persuasion o Source of Communication (who’s doingthe persuading) o Audience (who is being persuaded) o Message (what is being said) o Medium (what is the means by whichthe message is transmitted) · Factors of more persuasive include o Credibility o Attractiveness o Likeability · Reasons for helping o Prosocial Behavior the behaviorbenefits others such as helping or cooperationo Helping behavior is motivated byALTRUISM which is behavior aimed at helping another, requires self-sacrifice,not performed for personal gain and it increases appreciation of life · Aggression is of physical orpsychological harm on others · Genetic Link is twin & adoptionstudies on the criminal behavior · High level of testosterone this iscorrelated with aggressive behavior in males · Low levels of the neurotransmitter areassociated with the violent behavior · Some factors that can lead thechildren having aggressive behavior is brain damage, alcohol abuse, & highlevels of childhood · Aggression often happens due to pain,loud noise, or crowding · Scapegoating is the displacingaggression onto innocent targets not responsible for the frustration · Cognitive Neoassociationitic Model(Berkowitz) when the person is angry they evaluate and make attributions aboutpeople involved. · Aggression behavior (Bandura 1973)