·      Social Cognition is the process of
interpreting & remembering info about ourselves or other individuals

·      Impression Formation is the mental
process that develops judgments of another person. It’s a total overall
impression of another person based on what you first see, examples are as

o   Gender

o   Race

o   Age

o   Dress

o   Attractiveness or Unattractiveness

·      Impression Management is what
influences the we see ourselves. When we get feedback from other people when
they see the efforts we do we start to review our self-concepts.

·      Attribution there are the cause to
explain one’s own or another’s behavior.

o   Situational Attribution is a caused behavior
to an external cause or factor related to a situation

o   Dispositional Attributions behavior
to an internal cause like a personality trait

o   Self-serving Bias the tendency to
attribute one’s successes and one’s failures that are the situational cause

·      Factors that influence attraction

o   Proximity (physical &
geographical closeness)

o   Mere-Exposure Effect (tendency to
feel more positive toward a stimulus)

o   Reciprocity (we frequently like
people we like us)

o   Halo Effect (we have a tendency where
we assume that the person has positive or negative traits just because we
observe one major positive or negative trait

o   People of all ages tend to prefer to
go for the physical attractiveness of people. Like symmetrical faces &
bodies since they are more sexually appealing.

·      Intimate Relationships

o   Matching hypothesis choosing a
partner that has similar to us as in physical & other things

o   Evolutionary Psychologists when men
& women prefer mates on the bias of what they can reproduce. Like men
prefer young, attractive women. Women on the other had prefer men with a job
& high status.

o   4 qualities that are important in a
life partner 

§  Mutual attraction/love

§  Dependable character

§  Emotional stability & maturity

§  Pleasing disposition

·      Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love

o   3 components that produce 7 kinds of

§  Intimacy (feelings that promote
closeness, boundedness, & connectedness)

§  Passion (romance, physical attraction
& sexual consummation)

§  Commitment (make a decision that you
love that person)

·      Conformity means the changing or
adopting a behavior or an attitude to make the effort of blending in with the
social norms of a group or meet the expectations of other people.

o   Social norms are the attitudes &
standards of a behavior that is expected of members of a certain type of group.

·      Deception is the key element that
were in the studies of Milgram

o   Confederate (participant of an
experiment but assists the researcher)

o   Naive subject (the person is not
aware that deception Is being used)

·      Compliance acting based on the
request of the other people

·      Foot in the door technique gain
agreement to a small request then the person becomes more likely to agree to a
larger request.

·      Door in the face technique they make
large request and the expectation that the person will refuse it

·      Low ball technique when a person
makes an attractive initial offer just to get a person to agree with the action

·      Social Facilitation any positive or
negative effect on the performance when other people are present

o   Audience Effects (impact)

o   Coaction Effects (impact on
performance that are caused by the other people taking the same action)

·      Social loafing is when an individual
contribution to a group project that can’t be identified

·      Group Polarization that occurs after
the discussion

·      Groupthink when the group desire to
maintain agreement taking other considerations

·      Social Roles define behaviors when
the individual occupies a certain position in a group

·      Social identity often constructs a
group that insulates individual members against a stressor

·      Attitude has 3 components

o   Cognitive (thoughts & beliefs)

o   Emotional (feeling towards an object)

o   Behavioral (concerning actions
towards the object)

·      Some awareness of inconsistencies
between attitudes or between attitudes & behaviors

o   Reduce dissonance

o   Change in behavior

o   Change in attitudes

o   Explaining away the inconsistency

o   Minimizing its importance

·      4 elements of persuasion

o   Source of Communication (who’s doing
the persuading) 

o   Audience (who is being persuaded)

o   Message (what is being said)

o   Medium (what is the means by which
the message is transmitted)

·      Factors of more persuasive include

o   Credibility

o   Attractiveness

o   Likeability

·      Reasons for helping

o   Prosocial Behavior the behavior
benefits others such as helping or cooperation

o   Helping behavior is motivated by
ALTRUISM which is behavior aimed at helping another, requires self-sacrifice,
not performed for personal gain and it increases appreciation of life

·      Aggression is of physical or
psychological harm on others

·      Genetic Link is twin & adoption
studies on the criminal behavior

·      High level of testosterone this is
correlated with aggressive behavior in males

·      Low levels of the neurotransmitter are
associated with the violent behavior

·      Some factors that can lead the
children having aggressive behavior is brain damage, alcohol abuse, & high
levels of childhood

·      Aggression often happens due to pain,
loud noise, or crowding

·      Scapegoating is the displacing
aggression onto innocent targets not responsible for the frustration

·      Cognitive Neoassociationitic Model
(Berkowitz) when the person is angry they evaluate and make attributions about
people involved.

·      Aggression behavior (Bandura 1973)  

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