1.0 Introduction






Ergogenic in the term is “work
producing”. The reason why athletes takes the ergogenic aids is because they
fear of losing. It is not surprising that athletes want to try the newest
ergogenic aid since sporting competitions are sometime won by a difference of

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This supplement sometimes added to the
diet to make up for a additional nutritional however, some athletes consume
dietary supplements to improve the health and performance. Athletes at the
ancient days would eat the heart or liver of an animal, such as lion or deer,
to increase their swiftness, courage or strength but on the nowday, the uses of
the ergogenic aid is not surprising. In order to improve our performance and
hasten recovery, athletes and coaches uses various way to improved performance
which known as Ergogenic Aids. Ergogenic Aids may influence the physiological
capacity in our body but may also affect our performance. There are few
categories of the ergogenic aids that is:


2.0 Why the athletes take the ergogenic aids?






To enhance their performance during high
intensity activity. It gives you mental or physical edge while exercising or
competing. And also to improve or maintain their top performance during
competition to increase the chance of seizing the victory. 


3.0 The substances of ergogenic
aids that not been banned

There are several
ergogenic aids that are safe to use included the following:


Protein Powder







The protein is use to build the muscle
or strength you want but if you don’t consume the enough protein, you wont  be able to build the muscle. Although plenty
of the expensive brands of protein are available but the plain whey protein is
the best than others.


Fish Oil







Fish oil is not just help the athlete to
deal with injuries, swelling and inflammation, it also lubricates your joints
so they can get less wear and tear to our muscles. This is because the athlete
in the training or in the middle of the season that always get injuries.


Green Supplements

To the athletes that lack of vegetable
and the vitamins and minerals daily they can takes the green supplement to
recover their nutrition in their body. It also can short the time to the
athlete for recovery their muscles and tissues. It also can avoid the athlete
from injuries such as cramping.


Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs)

BCAAs is used to boost the immune
system. BCAAs can provides energy to do endurance activities because itself
accelerate the protein to breakdown into amino acids the body can use. It has
been shown to delayed fatigue as a result.


Vitamin D






Vitamin D help the body to absorb the
calcium for your bones to be strong. It also help the immune system to works
optimally. Vitamin D help you to stay longer when you play outdoor games but if
you play indoor games, you should takes the Vitamin D during off-season.












The body is made up from the 70 percent
water and your muscle is hold most of that. The drinking of the water may be
the simplest thing athletes can do to stay healthy and prevent the body from
dehydrates.  Example, when the football
plays the games, they need water to restored the energy that athletes loses.
The water that athletes drink consist the oxygen that will help the athletes to
perform better.


4.0 Advantages
of medication for ergogenic aids


Carbohydrate loading

It is now recognized that adequate
dietary carbohydrate in the days and hours before strenuous training and
competition is critical to maintaining adequate glycogen levels in the muscles.
Increasing consumption of carbohydrates in liquid or food form normally three
days prior to an endurance-type event is therefore a way to enhance
performance. Endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, rely on their stores
of glycogen as a source of energy during competition and carbohydrate loading
is a method for boosting the amount of glycogen in the body before a


Proper nutrition

 Proper nutrition means selecting good food
choices and diets that lead to maintaining health while also reducing major
risk factors for diseases. The estimated average daily  calorie requirement is 1940 calories per day
for women and 2550 for men. If the level of activity is increased, high
performance can be achieved by increasing the calorie intake according on a
sound nutrition basis


Electrolyte solutions

 The body requires a certain amount of fluid
intake on a daily basis to function and the minimum is about equal to four
8-ounce glasses (one liter or one quart). Strenuous activity and excessive
sweating call for two to three times this basic amount. It has been shown that
a fluid loss equivalent to 2% of body weight can impair performance and lead to
heat exhaustion at 5%. Electrolyte solutions not only provide fluid, but also
contain electrolytes, the salts and minerals required for various functions by
the body and that are also lost by sweating


Stress management

 The increased stress of competitive sports can
affect athletes both physically and mentally such that their performance
abilities are lowered. Stress may lead to excessive tension, increased heart
rates, cold sweats, and anxiety about the outcome of the competition. Stress
management techniques are recognized ergogenic aids that help maintain
concentration, confidence, control and commitment. Relaxation techniques:
Relaxation is especially important for high performance athletic activities. It
promotes rest, recovery and recuperation while removing stress related
reactions, such as increased muscular tension. In addition, relaxation
contributes to the maintenance of positive physical and mental states

But, there are some
ergogenic aids has been banned by the government because of many issue and
health problem may effected the athlete performance in the long term. The
question is why some ergogenic aids banned? Based on professional research, some
substance is illegal to use is because it may







5.0 Statistic


An experiment have been carried out by
the scientist about an effective supplement that is ergogenic aids. This
experiment have been carried out among professional athletes. This research is
using 600 athletes that is 216 women and 384 men that are asked to practise various
sports disciplines. The athletes have been divided into two classified that is
younger group and older group. The younger group consisted 307 people that is
18 to 23 years old and the rest of it is the older one that is 24 to 35 years
old. In this research they using a questionnaire that was used with question
concerning the frequency and types of consumed supplements.

Then the result have been carried out
that nearly half of the athletes that is 48.2% said they are taking
supplementation, 36.7% consumed the supplement occasionally and 11.5% still
taking the supplement. The most people in the group that is 75.4% are admitted to
take isotonic drinks that were the most commonly chosen nutritional aid
enhancing physical performance. The least are frequently used supplement that
was creatine. This research also showed that men is the most are take the
ergogenic aids than the women that is men is 50.5% and the women is 44.1% that
take the ergogenic aids.

So as the
conclusion from this experiment, competitors who use supplements over those who choose not to, seems to
reflect the continuous lack of the athletes’ sufficient awareness of the
effectiveness, safety, and health benefits of dietary supplementation that
enhances physical performance.



6.0 Substance that have been banned

National Collegiate
Athletic Association (NCAA) and Olympics commission have banned the several
substances such as anabolic and other steroids, Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA),
Diuretics, Blood doping, Ephedrine, human growth hormone (HGH) and take away
supplement. It is because they didn’t bring a lot of benefit to our body and
performance but bring more harmful to an athlete. Many drugs, supplements and
practices can give athletes unfair advantages and also the more damage than the
stripping an athlete of a title. An anabolic and other steroids that affect the
person can cause a long term health problem or even the death. In the end, it
better to training, dedication, hydrating fluids and the proper diet than
taking the ergogenic aids for boost your performance.

6.1 Anabolic and other steroids





An anabolic and other steroids that affect the person can cause a long term
health problem or even the death. In the end, it better to training,
dedication, hydrating fluids and the proper diet than taking the ergogenic aids
for boost your performance.

Illegal according the
law and in the sporting events.  The
effect to the athletes is numerous and potentially fatal. Examples of the
substances is androstenedione, stanozolol, axiron, and fortesta. Most related to the unwanted andro-genic
effects, such as shrinking testicles, enlarged prostate gland, and lower sperm
levels. Some of the adverse effects are potentially serious and irreversible
and they include heart, liver, and immune system problems. Behavior changes may
include aggression, paranoia, mood swings, low sex drive, and depression.

Harmful effects have been reported for
several ergogenic products. Additional risky supplements in the ephedrine class
include androstenedione and other “prohormone” precursors to testosterone,
yohimbine, and products that contain kava. Adverse effects have also been
reported with carbohydrate supplementation. Increased insulin levels after
carbohydrate consumption were shown to significantly decrease blood glucose
levels in some athletes, and fructose-containing solutions have been associated
with adverse gastrointestinal effects in some studies.









6.2 Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)






The most dangerous
and harmful steroid in humans by using synthetic versions to increase steroid
production. This supplement will physiologic in testosterone synthesis. The
testosterone level will increases in women but do not changed in men. They
would likely cause the many adverse effects associated with anabolic steroids.


6.3 Diuretics






The medications that
make person to urinate more frequently. They use this substances that will help
dilute performance-enhancing drugs. This also can cause a variety harmful side
effects such as cramping, dizziness, blood pressure drops, and electrolyte








6.4 Blood doping







Blood doping is the
process of boosting red blood cells to help carry more oxygen to the muscles
and lungs. It can be done through a blood transfusion or by taking drugs like erythropoietin.
Blood doping has been
linked to strokes, allergic reactions, and infections.


6.5 Erythropoietin


Athletes use this
medication to make more red blood cells in their bodies. This can increases the
ability to use oxygen because these cells can carry the oxygen.


A medication doctors
prescribe for people who don’t make a lot of red blood cells. Athletes use the
medicine to make more red blood cells in their bodies. This can increase a
person’s ability to use oxygen because these cells carry oxygen. Endurance
athletes may especially try to use erythropoietin because they believe they can
perform longer with more oxygen. However, using the medication when not
medically needed can cause blood clots and death.

Blood doping is the
process that cost Lance Armstrong his Tour de France titles.


Ephedrine is a
central nervous stimulant. Ephedrine produces similar effects to adrenaline,
but it too can be dangerous. It can cause serious cardiovascular effects,
including stroke, and a whole host of other problems. Both athletic
organizations and the FDA have banned it.


6.6 Creatine







It will increases our
performance. Creatine always be used by the athlete to improve their
performance and can increases their high intensity of their training. Creatine
also made our body gain lean muscle mass. It also can increases our strength 5
to 15 percent of body strength but creatine also have the bad effect such as
cramping and dehydration. It also completely unknown for  long term effect to our body.


6.7 Human growth hormone (HGH)







This aids is usually used by the body
builder. Some body builder takes large doses to decrease the fat and increases
the muscle mass. Many side effect has been detected by using this doses such as
enlarged organs and chronic disease. Effects include heart and nerve diseases,
glucose intolerance, and higher levels of blood fats Other effects also come
from the extra HGH levels in the body along with what is already produced by
the pituitary glands.



Even the caffeine can increases mental
alertness and lower the fatigue, it may cause irritability, restlessness,
diarrhea, insomnia, and anxiety if use excessively. It usually found in the
coffee, tea chocolate and soft drinks. Ergogenic doses of caffeine may cause
restlessness, nervousness, insomnia, and tremors. At least 17 deaths have been
linked to products that combine caffeine and ephedrine



Some athletes use this supplements to
improve their performance, have more energy or decrease their body fat but
athlete that use ephedrine nay find that it help them farther and faster but
some research that it will have side effects. This is why the National Football
League, the National Collegiate Athletic Association and the International
Olympic Committee have all taken steps to keep it off the playing fields

Its also  a central nervous stimulant. Ephedrine
produces similar effects to adrenaline, but it too can be dangerous. It can
cause serious cardiovascular effects, including stroke, and a whole host of
other problems. Both athletic organizations and the FDA have banned it.




Chris Froome a cyclist athlete – failed in drug test







Chris Froome is an international
athlete in cyclist that hold four times Tour de France champion are failed a
drug test that been doing by World Anti-doping Agencies(WADA). Chris froome has
asthma and he recommended to take the 
asthma drug for his cure to his disease and take according the volume
that allowed. But in this case, Chris Froome are failed in drug test because he
was found that he have a double the 
allowed level of the legal asthma drug that is Salbutamol in his urine
on a test that taken on 7 September 2017 by World Anti-doping Agencies(WADA)  during the vuelta a espana, which the 32
years old went on to win. Salbutamol is a medication that opens up the medium and
large airways in the lungs. It is used to treat asthma including asthma
attacks, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, and chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease (COPD).


8.0 Conclusion


Ergogenic aids are a substance that
benefits many athletes. It can also improve athlete performance. Ergogenic aids
can enhance the athlete’s spirit for training because ergogenic aids have a
positive effect in the shortest time. This will give the athlete confidence to
practice continuously. Ergogenic aids are divided into several parts, including
nutrition, physiology, psychology and so on. Many athletes use ergogenic aids
to make recovery because they have used a lot of muscles during training.
Ergogenic aids should be taken according to body requirements in order to help
improve athlete performance. If taking excessively it can be harmful to the
body. Athletes who take ergogenic aids should seek advice from experts so as
not to impair the athlete’s health. If not follow the instructions from the
expert it will cause the current performance of the competition to decline. In
addition to providing athlete’s goodness to improve performance, ergogenic aids
also harm the athlete. Examples of ergogenic aids forbidden to take athlete are
anabolic steroids. Ergogenic aids should be taken in a healthy way so that our
performance improves and can provide health to the body.

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