1.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVESThe goal or objectives of which the designed device is expected to accomplish is to build an automatic water level control with an automated control system. In this project sensors are placed at different level of the tank and with the aid of this sensors, the microcontroller monitors the level of the liquid at any particular point in time, some of the objectives are1.
to design an automatic water monitoring system 2. to incorporate an interactive medium between the end user and the machine 3. to prevent over labor of the pumping machine and prevent it from getting bad 4. to avoid wastage of water 13 5. since the demand for electricity is very high, automatic water level control saves energy1.2 JUSTIFICATIONAutomatic water level monitor came into existence because of human error and inconsistency that is associated with manually operated water pumping machine. This is because it takes time for individual who is manually running the water pump to turn off the pumping machine and this may cause water spillage and at times the individual might not know that the water level has dropped so low until the tank is completely empty.
This was the problem that leads to the development of the idea of an automatic water level control and electronic pump short down.1.3 SCOPE OF THE PROJECTThe project was designed to automatically control the pump which ensures a constant reserve of water in the reservoir. The scope of the design was kept concise and simple to in other not to introduce unnecessary complexities and render it generally uncomfortable. The system does not have attached complex peripheral device which though impossible for the detail printable information has been excluded for reasons of affordability material of low range and less accurate performances as opposed to a14 a well built automatic water pump was used to achieve this aim, the electronic water level controller detect and control the water in the tank1.4 CONSTRAINSThe biggest setback experience during the course of this project is difficulties in finding the design of the project, secondly sourcing of material and component I used for the project were difficult to find like pump and buffer for programming1.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE PROJECTIt is significant to know that this design is limited to 12v, 5amps electric pump and cannot be used to control industrial water pump above 5 ampsBLOCK DIAGRAM OVERVIEWThis project report writing is written and design in such a way that each chapter is related to the next as shown belowPOWER SUPPLYCONTROL CONTROL DISPLAY UNITE UNIT INPUT UNITFIG 1.0 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF AUTOMATIC WATER LEVEL CONTROL WITH PUMP15 1.
6 PROJECT REPORT ORGANISATIONThe organization of this project report is well detailed and vast in its coverage it covers all the activities encountered during the research work. The first chapter of this work took care of the introduction, aims and objective, scope, Justification and project report organization. Chapter two highlight on literature review chapter three highlight on the description of the system and some of the component used was emphasized in chapter four highlight on the system design and implementation, construction, testing and packaging of the pump. Chapter five is all about the conclusions problem encountered recommendation and cost of the project.16 CHAPTER TWO2.0 REVIEWAn automatic water level control detects the water level in the tank and also ensures continuous water flow round the clock because of its automatic, this automatic water control is made up of microcontroller written in C programming language this program is burned into an IC called AT89S52 With 40 pins. The level measurement consists of determining the distance from the upper surface of a liquid in a reservoir or vessel or any arbitrarily chosen mark located above or below this surface by itself the level is not an independent physical quantities describing the state of a substance through direct and indirect level, some examples of direct level measurement are dipstick, the bubbler, immersion electrode, capacitor type ,liquid level radiation type liquid level measurement .for instance the dipstick, it is very simple, the stick being dipped periodically through a hole and the hole and the immersion mark is being read off with the aid of the calibration on the stick.
Then, the direct level measurement is sight glass ,depending on the manometer principle, the transparent tube is placed in a convenient and it’s being connected to the lower part of tank and graduated for safety reasons, the top the bright glass is vented into the tank and the sight has isolation valve top and bottom while the micro base; water level controller has the ability to17 Switch on the pumping machine when the water in the tank has gone below gauge level automatically switches and OFF the pumping device when the water in the tank has reached its maximum level. Electronics circuit had undergone tremendous changes since the invention of a triode by LEE DE FOREST in 1907. In those days the active component like resistors, inductors, and capacitors, etc. Of the circuit were separated and distinct unite connected by soldered lead with the invention of a transistor in 1984 by W.
H Brattain and I.barden, the electronic circuit became considerably reduced in size. It was because components were not only cheaper, more reliable and less power consumption but were much smaller in size than an electronic tube. To take advantage of low transistors size, the passive component too reduced in size thereby making the entire circuit minimal to the development of printed circuit board(PBC) further reduce the size of electronics equipment by eliminating bulky wiring and tie point. In the early 1960s, a new field of microelectronics was born primarily to meet the requirement of the military which was to reduce the size of it electronics equipment to approximately one-tenth of it than existing volume. The extreme drive reduction in the size of electronic circuit has led to the development of micro-electronics circuit called integrated circuit (ICS) which are so small that technicians do their actual construction18 Using a high powered microscope. An integrated circuit is a complete circuit in which both the active and passive component is fabricated in on a tiny single chip of silicon, and Active component are those that have the ability to produce gain example are transistors and field effect transistors (FET).
An integrated circuit sometimes called a chip or microchip is a semiconductor wafer on which thousands of millions of tiny transistors, capacitors are fabricated, An IC can be either analog-digital depending on its intended application.2.1 SENSORSThe level sensor detects the level substance that flow including liquid s slurries, granular materials, and powders. All content that flow to become essentially level in their containers (or other physical boundaries) because of gravity The substance to be measured can be inside a hold or can be in its natural form (e.g., river or lake).
The level measurement can be either continuous or point value. Constant level sensors measure within a specified range and determine the exact amount of substance in a particular place. Hill point level sensors only indicate whether the content is above or below the sensing point the latter detect levels that are excessively high or low there are many physical and application of variables that affect selection of19 an optimal level monitoring method for industrial and commercial processes.
The selection criteria include the physical phase (liquid, solid or slurry), temperature, pressure or vacuum, density (specific gravity)of medium, agitation, acoustic or electrical noise, vibration, mechanical shock, tank or bin size and shape also significant are the application constraint price, accuracy, appearance response rate, ease of calibration or programming ,physical size and mounting of the instrument or discrete (point) levels