1.    Code Switching

A number of the
definitions of codeswitching have been proposed by researchers for centuries.
Code switching refers to the condition when the mixture of two languages made
in a single clause, sentence, or turn (Poplack, 1980 and Heller, 1988).
Valdes-Fallis (1978) adds that the combination can be in the form of words,
phrases and clauses. Moreover, according to Schendl and Wright (2011, p.3) sees
code switching as the ability in adapting and modifying between languages
without changing the setting, often with unchanged utterance. Thus, it can be
concluded that code mixing is a situation in which two languages are mixed
within the same conversation turn without changing its setting.

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Code switching has
become a natural phenomenon in language classroom. As Simon (2001, p.313) puts
it, this topic has developed for decades in many countries; United States,
South America, Canada, Europa and South-East Asia (Milroy and Muysken, p.90). The
researches unveil the positive and negative aspects of code switching in
language classroom. Gumperz and Hernandez-Chavez (1972, p.582) sees learners
who do code switching make mess in conversation and they portray themselves as
people who cannot speak language properly. Moreover, Thomas (2001, p. 137)
claims that code switching is something that cannot be accepted in language
learning.

However, on the other
hand there are some researchers who see code switching as a tool in helping the
language development. Sert (2005) argues that code switching has a positive
impact in the classroom because it creates linguistic solidarity between
learners who have similar ethno-cultural identity. Liebscher and Dailey-O’Cain
(p.235) promote teachers to use code switching instead of forbidding it.

There are some
reasons why learners do code switching. Firstly, their mastery of foreign
language and native language is unbalanced. Sert (2005) thinks that learners
tend to code-switch and “use the native lexical item when
s/he has not got the competence for using the TL explanation for a particular
lexical item”. Secondly, the learners need to negotiate the meaning (mental
sloppiness). Simon (2001) sees the learners’ different perceptions in getting
the information led them to share and negotiate the meaning with their peers
and thus it helps their learning process. Thirdly, code switching is a strategy
to be better understood. Some ideas are better communicated in a certain
language (without translating it). As Heredia and Brown (2005, p.214) emphasize
that people often do the code switching in order to be understood better. 

Matrix Language
Framework developed by Myers-Scotton (1993b) underlines two general types of
codeswitching; intersentential and intrasentential. Furthermore, she explains
that intersential code switching happens when learners switch two languages in
the form of the entire sentences. Interlocutors utter native sentence first
then in the second sentence they speak in foreign language. On the other hand,
intrasentential conde switching appears when two languages are mixed within a
sentence. It means that in a single sentence they may be two languages; native
and foreign,

 

2.    Foreign Language Anxiety

In the scope of
productive skills, foreign language anxiety can be defined as psychological
phenomenon such as feeling nervous, worry or uneasy in the process of producing
foreign language. The term is firstly proposed by Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope
(1968) in expressing the result of particular language learning process in the
form of a noticeable complex of self-beliefs, feelings and behaviors occurred
in the classroom language learning. Moreover, he adds that the anxiety is
formed from the fear of communicating with people, being tested and being
judged by others

The effect of foreign
language anxiety in oral performances is still debatable. Horwitz (2000, 2009),
Horwitz & Cope (1986) argue that it has a weak effect with language
performance and achievement. They assume that it is just merely a fear of
“sounding weird” in foreign language performance. On the other hand, some
researchers strongly state that anxiety does affect foreign language
performance. It makes learners making mistakes as the result of forgetting
things they want to utter. Furthermore, Arnold and Brown (1999, p.8) believe
that “anxiety is quite possibly the affective factor that most pervasively
obstructs the learning process”.

 

3.    Fluency of Speaking

Richards (2009, p.14)
defines fluency as the way people use the language naturally within a
conversation and can maintain its comprehensibility despite their limitation in
the communicative competence. Second language learners often face some
challenges in speaking foreign language. Brumfit (1984) sees fluency as the
maximal use of language system by a person.

Fluency can be
measured from some criteria proposed by Brumfit (1984). They are the speed of
language production, the degree of control and the interaction between language
and content, Furthermore, Brumfit argued that the best activities to develop
the learners’ fluency are those who focus on communicating the meaning rather
than language form.

 

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