1. Introduction We live in a world that is constantly changing andadvancing thanks to technological advancements, especially in the field ofmolecular genetics. We are also making advancements in the field of agriculturethanks to molecular genetics. As we all know, food is an essential entity inour lives and is abundant as well as relatively easy to obtain here in theUnited States. However, as good as it may sound, this is not necessarily truefor developing countries. Many people in developingcountries receive very little food, if any, due to its scarcity.
It is estimatedthat approximately 800 million people go to bed hungry every night due to foodshortage. This problem can be alleviated by turning to the production ofgenetically modified organisms ( GMOs). This paper will discuss how to makeGMOs and some arguments about the safety of GMOs.2. Discussion of findings.2.1. What is GMO ?As reported by Jennifer Chait ( 2017) , Genetically modified organism(GMO) is an organism or microorganism whose genetic makeup has been altered ormodified in the laboratory by using genetic engineering techniques whichinclude recombinant DNA technology and reproductive cloning in order toincorporate genes from another organism like plants, virus, bacterium, etc.
Byadding these new genes, genetic engineers hope that these plant will expressthe traits which are associated with the genes they choose. This traits may beincreasing product productivity, limiting diseases which effect to plants,animals or creating new products having great nutrient.2.2.
How to make GMO ?2.2.1. Identify the trait of interest.Scientists most often find and select many traits from plants oranimals, sometimes from virus and bacterium so that they can identify a splendidtrait. The combination of critical thinking and luck is the key to create asuccessful discovery of a new genetic trait of interest. For instance, anorganism which is able to survive in harsh environment may be a subject forresearchers to research for a trait that would allow a crop to survive in thisenvironment.
Or if researchers want to create a plant that includes morenutritionally and vitamins, they wouldlist different plants producing a nutrient of interest. Taking Golden ricecreating in 2000 as a current example of GMO that had combination of luck andcritical thinking. This new kind of rice has a great amount of pro-vitamin A,which human body can turn into the vitamin A. Researchers identified specialgene producing pro-vitamin A then they listed several plants that they haddoubts about including this gene. Luckily, they found a plant in nature with ahigh level of pro-vitamin A.2.2.2.
Isolate the genetic trait of interest.Researchers usually use comparativeanalysis to decode what part of an organism’s genetic makeup contains the traitof interest. The genomes of plants with the trait they choose are compared togenomes in the same species without the trait, with the goal of identifyinggenes present only in the former. Scientists will purposefully delete, or knockingout parts of the genome of interest until the desired trait is lost if there isno database of genetic information for comparison.
By this way, scientists canidentify the genes that lead to the trait. In order to carry out this process, amethod called seed chipping is developed and patented by Monsanto, a chemicalcorporation. First, they shave off parts of seeds for high-throughput geneticsequencing while leaving the rest of the seeds viable for planting. Thiscreates a genetic database for plants before they are grown, where a barcodesystem is used to match plants to their genotypes. Researchers may then usethis database to identify new traits of interest as well as to assess thedesirable traits in a crop by selecting for the best genotypes based on plantphenotypes.2.
2.3. Insert the desired genetic trait into a new genomeOwning to their rigid structure, it isvery difficult to alter the genome of plant seeds. A lot of biotechcorporations use a special device called gene gun that shoots metal particlescoated with DNA into plant tissue. Monsanto no longer uses gene guns, butinstead takes advantage of special bacteria thatnaturally invade seeds and alter plants by inserting pieces of their own DNAinto a plant’s genome.
In biotechnology research, bacteria is commonlyengineered to produce a desired protein. Enzymes are used to cut and paste aDNA strand of interest into a plasmid, which is a small, circular molecule ofDNA. Then scientists use heat or electricity to shock bacteria so that engineeredplasmid is accepted by the cells. By modifying this special bacteria, which is easier to modify than plantseeds themselves, scientists may use the bacteria’s naturally invasive for insertingdesirable traits into a crop’s genome.2.2.4.
Growingthe GMO.After a genetic trait has beensuccessfully inserted into an organism’s genome, the modified organism must beable to grow and replicate with its newly engineered genome. First, thegenotype of the organisms must be checked so that researchers are onlypropagating organisms in which the genome was modified correctly.
Biotechcompanies invest large sums into keeping these plants alive and reproducingonce they have been successfully created. The companies use specialclimate-controlled growth chambers, and biologists often check on the plants byhand to make sure that they are growing as expected. During this processbiotech companies will use automated machines in order to track plants andcalculate optimal seeding and growth conditions to create the best possibleyields. GMO seeds often come with instructions on spacing and nutrition thatresult from these studies.2.3. Is GMO really safe ?2.3.
1. About health.Due to producing great amounts of foodswhich have more nutrients, genetically modified organisms have the enormouspotential to solve the hunger and starvation of millions of people indeveloping countries. Genetically modified organisms also contain large amountsof nutrients like protein and vitamins, especially several qualities using tomanufacture precious medicine to cure people from dangerous diseases. However,there are some doubts about the safety of genetically modified organisms. Theconcerns are that new genes that are added to plants or animals may haveallergenic substances. Another is that genetic engineering often use antibiotic– resistance genes as ” selectable markers” and this creates to some seriouspublic health problems because when people eat products that containantibiotic-resistant also could leads to protest antibiotics. It is extremelydangerous for people when people need antibiotics to prescribe diseases.
Thegenetically modified organism may contain certain toxic substances, like heavymetals. According to an experience which did by a French Scientist named GillesEric Seralini in 2012, when mice atecorn NK603, a kind of corn which was modified genes, they suffered from severeliver and kidney damage. Cancer cells also existed in their body and after over2 months, they died. What happened on these mice might happen on human.
About environment.Some genetically modified plant contains a certain gene which is harmful toinsects. Growing this plant might decrease using pesticide, chemical fertilizer,etc.
Therefor people can not only manufacture amounts of fresh food but alsonot influence to environment, especial soil and water. However, this lead toanother problems. There might be unintentional damage to other organisms.
Asdemonstrated in Nature magazine, pollen from genetically modified maize cankill the King butterfly. The king butterflies eat nectar of ceiba not cornnectar, but due to the wind blowing from corn to the ceiba growing in nearbyfields, the King butterflies eats and is destroyed. This reduces the number ofpollinating insects in other plants growing near the maize growing area.
Another problem is Reducing theeffectiveness of pesticides. Some mosquito populations have increasedresistance to DDT (currently banned, except for some poor tropical countriesfor malaria control). Many researchers have confirmed that insects becomeadapted to genetically modified corn and other GM crops that have beengenetically engineered to resist insect pests. Thus, the transfer of insectresistance (insect larvae) to GM crops is no longer effective. One concernabout effect GMOs is the weeds.
Genetically modified plants can have a negativeimpact on natural ecosystems as they increase the risk of weeds in two ways.First, genetically modified plants form independent populations that existoutside of conventional farming areas. It is interesting to note that theseplants can become invasive weeds that expand and overwhelm natural populationsand thereby impair the biodiversity of indigenous vegetation. . New genes ingenetically engineered crops may turn to wild relatives in the form of pollenpropagation thanks to the viability and viability of the hybrids produced.
Thiscan have a negative impact on wild populations if the new genes arere-introduced into the original plant communities themselves. For gene entry,genes must increase the viability and reproduction of plant communities in thenatural world.3.
Conclusion.This research paper aims to clarify the process ofcreating a genetically modified organism successfully and give the details of argumentthat GMOs are really safe or not. To answer for the question ” Should we useGMOs ?”, scientists and researchers should give the consumer a definite answer,not arguments. For the consumer, they should be aware of what food they use andunderstand clearly about the origin of them. Moreover, It is better to farmerto consider carefully before deciding to grow GMOs.