1.Question or problem to beaddressed The aim of this researchproposal is to perform phytochemical screening of a new variety of Syzygiumcumini. Syzygium caryophylli folium (family-Myrtaceae) is an evergreen tropical tree and native to the Indian Subcontinentand was reported from Chandrapur district of Vidarbha region, Maharashtra. Themain objective is to determine phytochemicals present in S.caryophylli foliumleaves through ethanol extract along with biological activity against grampositive and gram negative microorganisms. 2.Background to the problem Medicinal plants are used forhealing and curing of human diseases due to presence of phytochemicalconstituents. Phytochemicals are oftwo categories; primary and secondary constituents.
Primary constituentsinclude chlorophyll, proteins sugar and amino acids while secondaryconstituents contain terpenoids and alkaloids phenolic compounds. Terpenoidsexhibit various pharmacological activities such as anti-malarial, anti-fungal,anti-inflammatory activities etc. Alkaloids are used as anaesthetic agents.Phenolic compounds possess biological properties such as anti-ageing,anti-carcinogen, anti-inflammation, cardiovascular protection and improvement(Han et al.
,2007). Plantproducts have been a part of phytomedicines since time immemorial. These can bederived from any part of the plant like barks, stems, leaves, roots, seeds, etc(Cragg and David, 2001), i.e., any part of the plant may contain activecompounds which occur naturally. The plants belonging to the family Myrtaceaeare used as anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antimicrobial, antioxidantagents. This species are also used as folk medicines to treat several diseases,especially gastrointestinal disorders, haemorrhagic and infectious diseases. Dueto this fact, preliminary phytochemicalscreening of plants is in need to discover and develop novel therapeutic drugswith improved efficacy.
Numerous research groups have also reported suchstudies throughout the world. Correlationbetween the phytoconstituents and the bioactivity of plant is desirable to knowfor the synthesis of compounds with specific activities to treat various healthailments and chronic diseases. 3.Experimentto address the problem Thefresh leaves of the plant Syzygiumcaryophylli folium should be washedthoroughly with water, shade dried for about 10 days.
The dried plant samplethen should be homogenized into fine powder and stored in air sealed containersat room temperature before extraction. The components of finely powdered plantmaterial are to be extracted using Soxhlet apparatus using organic solventethanol. The extract then is concentrated and stored in air tight glasscontainer for further use.
The aqueous extract of leaves sample is analysed forthe presence of the phytochemical constituents present in the plant. Alkaloid:The ethanolic extract is to be evaporated to dryness in boiling water bath.Then about 0.2 grams of residue is dissolved in 2% H2SO4 and filtered. A few drops of Dragondroff’sreagent is added.
Orange-red precipitates indicates the presence of alkaloids.