PetroleumFormationPetroleum is a fossil fuel that was created over millions of years from theremnants of marine organisms. Millions of years ago, after organisms suchas algae and plants died they sank to the bottom of the ocean. Here, they mixedwith sediment and other material before being buried over millions of years.Over these millions of years, the remains of these organisms were subject to extremelyhigh pressures and temperatures which resulted in what is today known as fossilfuels. An example of one of these fossil fuels is petroleum (Morse andTurgeon, 2013).

Catalytic reforming is a process that takesstraight chain hydrocarbons in the bracket of C6 to C8 from the fractions ofgasoline or naphtha. It then reorganises them into compounds containing benzenerings. the reactions produce hydrogen as a by-product. An example of reformingis when hexane (C6H14) loses hydrogen and becomes benzene(Clark, 2016). (Clark, 2016).  Platforming processes  PHARMACOLOGY Preformulationtesting has a substantial position in the discovery of a new drug and isheavily involved in the development program. This is due to the beneficialfeedback offered.

By it to the discovery and development teams during leadidentification and optimization of the drug.    The most common form of drug instability is througha loss of potency as a direct result of a chemical reaction. In some cases, atoxic substance could form as a drug degrades . This could include penicillinbeing exposed to acidic pH conditions causing it to rearrange into penicillenicacid which is a suspected cause of allergic reactions to penicillin (Yoshioka andStella, 2007).  SPECTROSCOPY? CONCENTRATION AND PH CALCULATIONS a)     b)    H3O+ = 10?pH                              = 10-4.00                              =  c)       RATES OF REACTIONThe independent variable is time (sec) and the dependent variableis the concentration of OH- mol dm-3.   

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