2.1.7 Maslow’sHierarchy of Needs TheoryMaslow’s need theory is about hierarchy of universalneeds that motivate a person.
Maslow’s needs hierarchy theory condenses andintegrates the long list of needs that had been studied previously into ahierarchy of five basic categories (Steven L. McShane and Von Glinow 2008). Maslowthought that personal needs can be arranged in a hierarchical order; inessence, he believed that once a given level of need is satis?ed, it no longerserves to motivate. The next higher level of need has to be activated in orderto motivate the individual. (Fred 2011). Maslow in his book (1954) identi?ed ?ve levels inhis need hierarchy.
They are, in brief, the following:1. Physiological needs. The needs that are usually taken as the startingpoint for motivation theory are the so-called physiological drives. These needsare the most basic level in the hierarchy, generally corresponds to theunlearned primary needs (Maslow 1954). The needs of hunger, thirst, sleep, andsex are some examples. According to the theory, once these basic needs aresatis?ed, they no longer motivate. For example, if a person is hungry and hungeris satisfied, it becomes unimportant in the current dynamics of the individualthen he/she will be motivated only by the next higher level of needs.
2. Safety needs.If the physiological needs are relatively well satisfied, there then emerges anew set of needs, which we may categorize roughly as the safety needs.
Thissecond level of needs is roughly equivalent to the security need. Maslowstressed emotional as well as physical safety. The whole organism may become asafety-seeking mechanism (Fred 2011).These needs are security and protection from physical and emotional harm. Oncethese needs are satis?ed, they no longer motivate (Robbins and Judge 2012). 3.
Social need. Robbinsand Judge (2012) stated that if boththe physiological and the safety needs are fairly well gratified, there willemerge social needs that include affection, belongingness, acceptance, andfriendship. 4. Esteem needs.Maslow (1954) described this level represents the higher needs of humans. Maslowcarefully pointed out that the esteem level contains both self-esteem andesteem from others. These are, first, the desire for strength, for achievement,for adequacy, for mastery and competence, for confidence in the face of theworld, and for independence and freedom. Second, we have what we may call thedesire for reputation or prestige defining it as respect or esteem from otherpeople, status, fame and glory, dominance, recognition, attention, importance,dignity, or appreciation.
(Fred 2011). 5. Needs for self-actualization. Maslow’s major contribution, he portrays this levelas the culmination of all the lower, intermediate, and higher needs of humans.People who have become self-actualized are self-ful?lled and have realized alltheir potential.
Self-actualization is closely related to the self-concepts. Ineffect, self-actualization is the person’s motivation to transform perceptionof self into reality. According to Steven L. McShane and Von Glinow (2008)as a person satisfies a lower level need; the next higher need in the hierarchybecomes the primary motivator and remains so even if never satisfied. The exceptionto this need fulfillment process is self-actualization; as people experienceself-actualization, they desire more rather than less of this need. Thus whilethe bottom four groups are deficiency needs because they become activated when unfulfilled,self-actualization is known as a growth need because it continues to developeven when fulfilled. 2.
1.8 Herzberg’sTwo-Factor Theory of MotivationHerzberg defined two sets of factors in decidingemployees working attitudes and level of performance, named motivation &hygiene factors (Robbins, 2009). Two-factor theory describe job satisfiers arerelated to job content and that job dissatisfies are allied to job context.Herzberg labeled the satisfiers motivators, and he called the dissatisfierhygiene factors. In Herzberg’s theory the motivation factors are intrinsicfactors that will increase employees’ job satisfaction; while hygiene factorsare extrinsic factors to prevent any employees’ dissatisfaction.
(Fred, 2011).The implication for organizations to use this theoryis that meeting employees’ extrinsic or hygiene factors will only preventemployees from becoming actively dissatisfied but will not motivate them tocontribute additional effort toward better performance. To motivate employees,organizations should focus on supplying intrinsic or motivation factors(Robbins, 2009). Extrinsic factors are well known as job contextfactors; are extrinsic satisfactions granted by other people for employees(Robbins, 2009). These factors serve as guidance for employers in creating afavorable working environment where employees feel comfortable working inside.
When all these external factors were achieved, employees will be free fromunpleasant external working conditions that will not destroy their feelings ofdissatisfactions, but remains themselves neutral in neither satisfied normotivated; however, when employers fail to supply employees’ extrinsic factorsneeds, employees’ job dissatisfaction will arise. Intrinsic factors are the actual factors thatcontribute to employees’ level of job satisfactions. It has widely being knownas job content factors which aim to provide employees meaningful works thatable to intrinsically satisfy themselves by their works outcomes,responsibilities delegated experience learned, and achievements harvested(Robbins, 2009).
Intrinsic factors are very effective in creating andmaintaining more durable positive effects on employees’ performance towardstheir jobs as these factors are human basic needs for psychological growth.Intrinsic factors will propel employees to insert additional interest intotheir job. When employees are well satisfied by motivational needs, theirproductivity and efficiency will improved. This theory further proposed the intrinsic andextrinsic factors are interdependence to each other. Presence of extrinsicfactors will only eliminate employees’ work dissatisfaction; however, it willnot provide job satisfaction. On the other hand, sufficient supply in intrinsicfactor will cultivate employees’ inner growth and development that will lead toa higher productivity and performance; however, absent of this factor will onlyneutralize their feeling neither satisfy nor dissatisfy on their jobs.Extrinsic factors only permit employees willingness to work while intrinsicfactors will decide their quality of work.
These two groups of extrinsic andintrinsic factors are not necessary opposite with each other, as opposite ofsatisfaction are not dissatisfaction, but rather no satisfaction. Similarly,opposite of dissatisfaction are not satisfaction, but no dissatisfaction (Robbins,2009). 2.1.
9 ERG Theoryof MotivationAlderfer expanded Maslow’s basic needs and refined them into existence, relatedness, and growth needs. Alderfer proposed the ERG theory based on results of empirical studies to explain the relationship between satisfactionof needs and human desires. Existence needs include a person’s physiologicaland physically related safety needs, such as the need for food, shelter, andsafe working conditions. Relatedness needs include a person’s need to interactwith other people, receive public recognition, and feel secure around people(i.e., interpersonal safety). Growth needs consist of a person’s self-esteemthrough personal achievement as well as the concept of self-actualization presentedin Maslow’s theory (Robbins 1996).
ERG theory states that an employee’s behavior ismotivated simultaneously by more than one need level. Thus, you might try tosatisfy your growth needs (such as by completing an assignment exceptionallywell) even though your relatedness needs aren’t completely satisfied (Conte,2007).ERG theory applies the satisfaction-progressionprocess described in Maslow’s needs hierarchy model, so one need’s level willdominate a person’s motivation more than others. As existence needs aresatisfied, for example, related needs become more important. Unlike Maslow’smodel, however, ERG theory includes a frustration regression process wherebythose who are unable to satisfy a higher need become frustrated and regress tothe next lower need level Armstrong (2001).For example, if existence and relatedness needs havebeen satisfied, but growth need fulfillment has been blocked, the individualwill become frustrated and relatedness needs will again emerge as the dominantsource of motivation. Although not fully tested, ERG theory seems to explainthe dynamics of human needs in organizations reasonably well.
It provides aless rigid explanation of employee needs than Maslow’s hierarchy. 2.1.10 EquityTheory of MotivationAccording to Fred (2012) equity theory developed by J. Stacey Adams, proposesthat a major input into jobperformance and satisfaction is the degree of equity or inequity that people perceivein their work situation. Equity is when the ratio of a person outcome to inputcompared to other person ration is equal.
On the other hand inequity occurswhen a person perceives that the ratio of his or her outcomes to inputs and theratio of a relevant other’s outcomes to inputs are unequal. If an employee perceives his/her ratio to beequitable in comparison to those of relevant others, there’s no problem.However, if the ratio is inequitable, he/she views herself as under rewarded orover rewarded. When inequities occur, employees attempt to do something aboutit. The result might be lower or higher productivity improved or reducedquality of output, increased absenteeism, or voluntary resignation Robbins andCoulter (2012).Fred (2012) describes that both the inputs and theoutputs of the person and the other are based on the person’s perceptions, age,sex, education, social status, organizational position, qualifications, and howhard the person works.
Outcomes consist primarily of rewards such as pay,status, promotion, and intrinsic interest in the job. The referent is an important variable in equitytheory that an individual compare themselves against the other persons,systems, or selves individuals in order to assess equity. Each of the three referentcategories is important Robbins and Coulter (2012).The person category includes other individualswith similar jobs in the same organization but also includes friends,neighbors, or professional associates. Based on what they hear at work or readabout in newspapers or trade journals, employees compare their pay with that ofothers. The system categoryincludes organizational pay policies, procedures, and allocation. The self category refers to inputs–outcomesratios that are unique to the individual. It reflects past personal experiencesand contacts and is influenced by criteria such as past jobs or familycommitments.
Originally, equity theory focused on distributivejustice, which is the perceived fairness of the amount and allocation ofrewards among individuals. 2.1.11 ExpectancyTheory of MotivationThe most comprehensive explanation of how employeesare motivated is Victor Vroom’s expectancy theory. As it was described byRobbins and Coulter (2012) expectancy theory states that an individual tends toact in a certain way based on the expectation the attractiveness of thatoutcome to the individual. It includes three variables or relationships: 1. Expectancy oreffort–performance linkage is the probability perceived by the individual thatexerting a given amount of effort will lead to a certain level of performance. 2.
Instrumentalityor performance–reward linkage is the degree to which the individual believesthat performing at a particular level is instrumental in attaining the desiredoutcome. 3. Valence orattractiveness of reward is the importance that the individual places on thepotential outcome or reward that can be achieved on the job. Valence considersboth the goals and needs of the individual.