24bacteria resistance. Therefore, the themes involve this discussion will be theregarding regulations, sampling guidelines, limitation of organisms’ discharge,regrowth issue, treatment strategies.6-1 Human Pathogens Survive and ThriveHaving considered the mechanisms of bacteria resistance within ballast tanksand their biological factors, the possibility of them survive has been proved. Thisgradually became the utmost concern in marine industry. In this paper, thequestion introduced is how can they resist the certain treatments and how theyFnd the way to grow again. Among the species introduced by ballast water thereare pathogenic species. E coli, Bacillus and Vibrio are the human pathogenicspecies that spread and introduce via ship’s ballast water therefore, impactnegatively on health public as a worst expected scenario. It is explained that inthe certain conditions of absence of organisms that feed on bacteria and in thecondition of the abundance of nutrition for bacteria such as the form of dissolvedorganic matter (DOM), those pathogenic microbes can survive and thrive. Manyexperimental studies stated that no one of treatment systems can guarantee100% killing microorganisms. The process of Fltration can remove organisms insize between 20-55 µm therefore, the pathogenic bacteria con successfully passthrough. So, treated water comprises dead organisms “in the form of dissolvedorganic matter” (DOM) that became nutrients to those bacteria. In the empiricalresearch published by Elsevier Ltd. ( (8), the two types of bacteria wereinvestigated which they are Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Theyobserved the bacteria in untreated seawater lost their capable of growth, butthey survive and grow in the treated water. Also, they found the use of highlevels of ozone results rapid growth of bacteria that riches about 106 cfu/mlafter 4 days. The explanation was given as is because of lack of predators alsothe reason is because of strong oxidation process that causes the substrateseasily break down. The mechanisms to survive after disinfection are availabilityof dead cells in the same time releasing what is called cellular matter, which isbroken down by released enzymes into dissolved organic matter, and bychemical eCect of disinfectants (8). 6-2 Regrowth IssueBallast water treatment systems commonly removes the big organisms and cannot remove the natural exist dissolved organic matter (DOM) and other resourceof nutrients for bacterial growth. Simply put, the process of regrowth can be

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