3.1 CHAPTER INTRODUCTION –
This chapter introduces
the various methods of research that are suitable for this research. The study
takes on the mixed methods as its specific research design; a combination of
interpretive and positivist research philosophies; data collection i.e.
questionnaire survey and interviews; random sampling to select participants for
questionnaire survey and interviews; data collection and analysis process:
reliability and validity and the last ethical consideration.
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN –
In this study,
the mixed method design is used, which is the combination of quantitative and
qualitative methods and as well as methods of inquiry.
Some writers of
mixed methods believe and consider this form of research a methodology and
focus on the philosophical assumptions (Creswell and Plano Clark, 2016). In
mixed methods approach, the researcher collects data directly from the research
participants through questionnaire surveys, interviews, observations etc. and
combine these data in a single study (Heyvaert, Maes, and Onghena, 2011).
approach involves both research methods quantitative and qualitative that
include the collections of data and analyzing it in a single study or series of
studies. Some researchers believe that mixed method approach gives a better
understanding of research rather than individual approach (Creswell and Plano
Clark, 2016). Quantitative research deals with anything that is measurable in a
systematic way, and anything related to the numbers. Based on a hypothesis or
theory, a quantitative method typically starts with data collection such as by
questionnaire surveys. In quantitative research method, mostly observation and
surveys are used in research with the statistical association.
All the results
of quantitative research usually complete with disconfirmation or confirmation
of the hypothesis test. The process of measurement plays an important role in
the quantitative research method and it is the focus of quantitative research
because of its connectivity between mathematical expressions and empirical
observations (Leedy 1993). Determination of appropriate variables, measurement
of those variables, and analysis of the relationship between the variables are
the three main activities of the quantitative research method. Whereas,
qualitative research deals with the words and feelings of the participants. The
qualitative aspect of the study is seen in its multi-method focus, in which a
naturalistic and interpretive position is used in approaching the subject
matter (Muijs, 2011). Mixed method approach will use in this study. With the
help of mixed research approach, this research topic can be suitably explained
and that address the research questions at different levels.
3.3 RESEARCH PHILOSOPHY –
concerned about the views how the world works, as an academic subject,
primarily, knowledge, focuses, on reality and existence. Views of all the
individuals depend on how they perceive as reality (Mason, 2014).
Nature of the
knowledge and development of the knowledge is related to the research
philosophy. For this dissertation, it’s very important to understand how
researcher perceives reality. To conduct the research in this dissertation can
be affected by how an individual gain knowledge and the perception of reality
(Mason, 2014). There are three types of research philosophies: interpretivism,
positivism, and transformative theories. In this study, both positivist and
interpretive philosophies have used. For
this kind research, mixed research methods help to give more comprehensive
evidence. In general, both qualitative
and quantitative research approach will help to give a better understanding of
this research. Mixed methods research is a research design with a philosophical
assumption as well as methods of inquiry (Heyvaert, Maes, and Onghena, 2011).
According to the interpretive researchers, access to reality is only through
social constructions such as consciousness, instruments, language and shared
interpretive researcher, it is really important to appreciate differences
between as a social actor (Dudovskiy, 2017). In this research, interviews will
be taken to the people in slums to get their exact opinion and their feelings
about this project.
research deals with words and people feelings rather than numbers, Conversely,
interpretive research is a more specific term, which is described in relation
to epistemology (Rowlands, 2005). Positivist philosophy will also represent in
this research. To tackle the research problems, a questionnaire survey method
will be using. According to the positivist’s approach, the reality is stable
and can be described from the objective point of view. Positivist is based on
the idea that Science is the only way to learn about the truth, in positivist
approach, research findings are usually quantifiable and observable. To
investigate the social world, the researcher should apply the scientific
methods. Positivism is directly depended on quantifiable observations that lead
themselves to statistical analysis (Dudovskiy, 2017). These factors were the
reason for choosing the interpretivism and positivist philosophy for this
research. This research studies the living conditions of people those are
living in slums and also to know the impact of “Housing for all” mission by
2022 project in their lives socially and economically.