3.      Use of Nano technologyin refractory industrial:  Nanotechnology is commonly defined by size and consist ofthe visualization, properties, production and manipulation of structures whichare lower than 10 -9 m 89-90.special mechanical, optical, electrical,and magnetic characterizes which candiffer substantially from the properties of the same materials at largerdimensions can show for the structures that the dimensions of which range from100 nm down to approx. 0.1 nm.

Hence, Nano technology is a very active research area and has applications ina number of fields. Today, remarkable attention has been paid to the use ofnano-technology in the progress of refractories goods 91-93. Nano technologyhas been entered torefractories.  It has been expressed that the usefulness ofthe refractories was acutely improved for thewell distribution of nano sized grain in the matrix  and reaction activity. Some resech have beendone by different researchers to enhancecharacterizes of refractories (bricks and shapeless) by using Nano particles. The use of nano technology isaimed at achieving the special characterizes of brick and shapeless refractories90-95:  this properties consist of:Highcompressive strength,  Relatively high tensile strength and ductility,  More efficient cement hydrationEnhanced aggregate paste bond strength, Highcorrosion resistance  Control of cracksand self-healing  High resistance to thermal shock and    High Abrasion resistance  High chemical corrosion résistance  4.      Use of Nano technology in shapeless refractories:Basedon the above, in this section, the results of carried out activities by different researchers using nano technology in shapelessrefractories have been expressed (Table1).

It is showed that the use of Nano technology has been heavily used by researchers in recently. Summary: Recently, Nano technology is used forproduction to refractory good s and it isa necessary tool included in many activities. Most of researches hasbeen working on the adding of different types of additives in ceramic goods, and some of them have concentrated their investigations on the use of Nano additives, because of the mentioned advantageous of addingnano-particles to the ceramic goods.  In this review article, allresearches which done to enhance the performance of monolithic refractories isreported and it was concluded that the application of nano-additives has thebest results. Results show that recently, researchers have been usingnano-technology and have reached interesting results.


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