3.      Use of Nano technology
in refractory industrial:

technology is commonly defined by size and consist of
the visualization, properties, production and manipulation of structures which
are lower than 10 -9 m 89-
90.special mechanical, optical, electrical,
and magnetic characterizes which can
differ substantially from the properties of the same materials at larger
dimensions can show for the structures that the dimensions of which range from
100 nm down to approx. 0.1 nm. Hence, Nano technology is a very active research area and has applications in
a number of fields. Today, remarkable attention has been paid to the use of
nano-technology in the progress of refractories goods 91-93. Nano technology
has been entered to
refractories.  It has been expressed that the usefulness of
the refractories was acutely improved for the
well distribution of nano sized grain in the matrix  and reaction activity. Some resech have been
done by different researchers to enhance
characterizes of refractories (bricks and shapeless) by using Nano particles. The use of nano technology is
aimed at achieving the special characterizes of brick and shapeless refractories
90-95:  this properties consist of:

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compressive strength, 

 Relatively high tensile strength and ductility,

 More efficient cement hydration

 aggregate paste bond strength,

corrosion resistance

 Control of cracks
and self-healing

 High resistance to thermal shock and  

 High Abrasion resistance 

 High chemical corrosion résistance

4.      Use of Nano technology in shapeless refractories:

on the above, in this section, the results of carried out activities by different researchers using nano technology in shapeless
refractories have been expressed (Table
1). It is showed that the use of Nano technology has been heavily used by researchers in recently.


 Recently, Nano technology is used for
production to refractory good s and it is
a necessary tool included in many activities. Most of researches has
been working on the adding of different types of additives in ceramic goods, and some of them have concentrated their investigations on the use of Nano additives, because of the mentioned advantageous of adding
nano-particles to the ceramic goods.  In this review article, all
researches which done to enhance the performance of monolithic refractories is
reported and it was concluded that the application of nano-additives has the
best results. Results show that recently, researchers have been using
nano-technology and have reached interesting results.  

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