A review by Morbeck et. al. suggested that,
“culture without protein is a definite prerequisite to effectively ascertain
the ability of culture medium to support embryo development because protein is
known to have significant undefined and defined variability” (Morbeck et. al.

2014). Protein consists of many unknown components that could alleviate
deficiencies produced by certain media formulations (Morbeck et. al. 2014). Although
culture media have improved over the last two decades, they still activate
significantly more stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) such as SAPK/JNK
(Xie, Puscheck and Rappolee, 2006). Media increases SAPK/JNK phosphorylation
and these levels negatively correlate with embryonic development (Wang et. al.,
2005). Stress tests for SAPK/JNK phosphorylation may be conducted to new media
in attempt to control the established medium (Wang et. al., 2005). It’s
possible to use SAPK/JNK inhibitors to prevent stress induced cultures and
significantly reduce apoptosis and embryo toxicity (Xie, Puscheck and Rappolee,

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