0 Preparationin preventing human made disasterThere are five broadplanning activities an agency will need to undertake in preparing a disasterplan: first, establish an Emergency Committee, identify and assess potentialthreats, establish an Emergency Response Team, gather equipment and materialand identify priorities for record salvage. The fear, anxiety and losses can bereduce if disaster plan are well organized if disasters strikes. Disaster cancome in many ways, it might also be man-made, like a bioterrorist attack,chemical spill,nuclear attack and etc.

Any members in an organization should know the risksand danger signs of different types of disasters. Any organization should wellprepared with their disaster plan. Be ready to evacuate a workplace, and knowhow to treat basic medical problems. Make sure the organization have theinsurance need, including special types. No matter what kind of human made disasterwe experience, it causes emotional distress.After a disaster, recovery can take time. Stay connected to our colleague andfriends during this period.

(FederalEmergency Management Agency,2016) 5.1. EmergencyCommitteeThe Disasters Emergency Committee (DEC) isan umbrella group of any organization which coordinates andlaunches collective appeals to raise funds to provide emergency aid and rapidrelief to people caught up in disasters and humanitarian crises that happen inthat organization. Any agency or organization will probably continue tofunction during an emergency. However, the response to the event will requirespecial action, including planning and allocating people from other resources.

Since the emergency response will differ significantly from normal operations,the best way to prepare is to establish a special committee to manage theemergency’s special requirements. The special committee will only be effectiveif it is already fully functioning before an emergency takes place.Role of the CommitteeThe Emergency Committeeshould be responsible to an agency’s director for preparing a DisasterPreparedness Plan and for managing an integrated response and recovery to eachemergency. CompositionThe members of thecommittee should include: Control Centre Coordinator, Facilities/SecurityManager, Records Manager, Administration/Public Relations, Systems/IT Manager, OH&SRepresentative.ResponsibilitiesThe Emergency Committeehas three general areas of responsibility: to ensure the safety of people whoare likely to be affected by the emergency, to ensure the safety and securityof records, to ensure the protection and preservation of buildings, andequipment.

  5.2. Identificationand assessment of threatsIdentifying the threatsmost likely to can decrease damage to an agency’s facilities and reducing assessingthe degree of risk is depend on an effective emergency response. A threatassessment can be made by following these four steps: First, identify and alertall possible threats that can happen to our workplace environment, such as vandalism,terrorist attack and nuclear attack.

Second, establish the probability of eachthreat, is that agency or organization expose to any threat or not. Next, determinethe possible and likely consequences of each type of threat and what effect itwill left to agency’s collection.The example ofhuman made disaster is vandalism, theft, arson, bombingand bomb hoax, demonstrations, sabotage, terrorist attack 5.3.

Emergency response teamEmergencyrespond team is a group of people who prepare for and respond to any emergencyincident, whatever kind of disaster is such as a natural disaster or aninterruption of business operations. In public service organizations as well asin organizations, emergency respond team are common. This team is generallycomposed of specific members designated before an incident occurs, althoughunder certain circumstances the team may be an ad hoc group of willingvolunteers. Emergency response team members ideally are trained and prepared tofulfill the roles required by the specific situation (for example, to serveas incident commander inthe event of a large-scale public emergency).

As the size of an incident grows,and as more resources are drawn into the event, the command of the situationmay shift through several phases. In a small-scale event, usually only avolunteer or ad hoc team may respond. In events, both large and small, bothspecific member and ad hoc teams may work jointly in a unified command system. Individual team members can be trained in various aspects of theresponse, be it medical assistance/first aid, hazardous materials spills, hostage situations, information systems attacks ordisaster relief. Ideally the team has already defined a protocol or set ofactions to perform to mitigate the negative effects of the incident.Emergency Committee should establish a team or teams of volunteer stafffrom each section of the agency to take part in salvaging records afteridentifying the threat. All response team members must be accessible bytelephone for after hours call-out.

Each team must have a leader and deputy. Ina group, one teams  should have no morethan six to eight members and include management, technical, administrative andoperational staff. Teams will need to be trained in response and recoverytechniques and have good knowledge of preventive measures. Teams will need tomeet at least once a year and be informed of changes in the DisasterPreparedness Plan.        5.4 Equipment and materialsTo ensure efficient recovery ofrecords it is essential that you have appropriateequipment and materials readilyavailable. Agencies should purchase the followingequipment and materialsfor a disaster kit: Paper towels Mops, bucket Blank newsprint roll of polyethylene plastic Labels Freezer paper Plastic garbage bins extension cords Sponges Paper, pencils Plastic bin liners rubber gloves Scissors, tape Plastic string, pegs Pliers torches Clipboards Plastic tubing Electric fans   Absorbent cloths Plastic paper clips Surgical type gloves   Table1 : Materials for disaster kit Theseitems should be stored near the main entrance and be easily accessible to emergencyresponse teams5.

5Identify priorities for salvage Itis essential that agencies are aware of and identify the following categoriesof records to assist in the efficient recovery of records.Vital recordsVitalrecords are those deemed essential to reconstruct and continue operations of theagency and to protect its organizational, legal and financial interests.Generally, only 2-3 per cent of an agency’s records are vital records.

A vitalrecord, it must be remembered, is not necessarily one with long-term value; itmay only have short term value, eg lists of people currently entitled topensions.General recordsGeneralrecords may included the following: permanent value generalcorrespondence of central offices or central boards, committees, easilyidentifiable items or small groups of items of historical or artistic interest,eg plans or drawings, diaries and personal papers of ministers, recordsof personal interest, eg naturalization records, crew and passenger listscontrol records, eg indexes, registers, vulnerable records. Theseinclude magnetic tapes, photographic prints and films.      5.6Computer systems requirementsAll computersoftware needs certain hardware components or other software resources to bepresent on a computer so that it can be used efficiently. These prerequisites are known as(computer) system requirements and are often used as a guideline asopposed to an absolute rule. Most software defines two sets of systemrequirements: minimum and recommended. With increasing demand for higherprocessing power and resources in newer versions of software, systemrequirements tend to increase over time.

Industry analysts suggest that thistrend plays a bigger part in driving upgrades to existing computer systems thantechnological advancements. A second meaning of the term of Systemrequirements, is a generalization of this first definition, giving therequirements to be met in the design of a system or sub-system. Typically anorganization starts with a set of business requirements and then derives theSystem requirements from there. It is essential that your agency’s computersystem programs are backed up on a regular basis. Every IT Section inorganization should be able to provide with it’s back-up schedule for inclusionin plan. If IT Section is not on site, it may not be necessary to include thisinformation in plan.

5.7 Disasterpreparedness networks According to Margaret Rouse a networkdisaster recovery plan is a set of procedures designed to prepare anorganization to respond to an interruption of network services during a naturalor manmade catastrophe. Once an agency has started to prepare aDisaster Preparedness Plan it is a good idea to coordinate with other agenciesthat have offices in the building or in adjacent buildings. In this way anetwork for cooperation in times of disaster can be established between anagency and others.

One example of this might be for agencies in adjacentbuildings to have off-site storage agreements for back-up tapes.

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