5.0 Preparation
in preventing human made disaster

There are five broad
planning activities an agency will need to undertake in preparing a disaster
plan: first, establish an Emergency Committee, identify and assess potential
threats, establish an Emergency Response Team, gather equipment and material
and identify priorities for record salvage. The fear, anxiety and losses can be
reduce if disaster plan are well organized if disasters strikes. Disaster can
come in many ways, it might also be man-made, like a bioterrorist attack,
chemical spill,
nuclear attack and etc. Any members in an organization should know the risks
and danger signs of different types of disasters. Any organization should well
prepared with their disaster plan. Be ready to evacuate a workplace, and know
how to treat basic medical problems. Make sure the organization have the
insurance need, including special types. No matter what kind of human made disaster
we experience, it causes emotional distress.
After a disaster, recovery can take time. Stay connected to our colleague and
friends during this period. (
Emergency Management Agency,2016)

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5.1. Emergency

The Disasters Emergency Committee (DEC) is
an umbrella group of any organization which coordinates and
launches collective appeals to raise funds to provide emergency aid and rapid
relief to people caught up in disasters and humanitarian crises that happen in
that organization. Any agency or organization will probably continue to
function during an emergency. However, the response to the event will require
special action, including planning and allocating people from other resources.
Since the emergency response will differ significantly from normal operations,
the best way to prepare is to establish a special committee to manage the
emergency’s special requirements. The special committee will only be effective
if it is already fully functioning before an emergency takes place.

Role of the Committee

The Emergency Committee
should be responsible to an agency’s director for preparing a Disaster
Preparedness Plan and for managing an integrated response and recovery to each


The members of the
committee should include: Control Centre Coordinator, Facilities/Security
Manager, Records Manager, Administration/Public Relations, Systems/IT Manager, OH&S


The Emergency Committee
has three general areas of responsibility: to ensure the safety of people who
are likely to be affected by the emergency, to ensure the safety and security
of records, to ensure the protection and preservation of buildings, and



5.2. Identification
and assessment of threats

Identifying the threats
most likely to can decrease damage to an agency’s facilities and reducing assessing
the degree of risk is depend on an effective emergency response. A threat
assessment can be made by following these four steps: First, identify and alert
all possible threats that can happen to our workplace environment, such as vandalism,
terrorist attack and nuclear attack. Second, establish the probability of each
threat, is that agency or organization expose to any threat or not. Next, determine
the possible and likely consequences of each type of threat and what effect it
will left to agency’s collection.
The example of
human made disaster is vandalism, theft, arson, bombing
and bomb hoax, demonstrations, sabotage, terrorist attack

Emergency response team

respond team is a group of people who prepare for and respond to any emergency
incident, whatever kind of disaster is such as a natural disaster or an
interruption of business operations. In public service organizations as well as
in organizations, emergency respond team are common. This team is generally
composed of specific members designated before an incident occurs, although
under certain circumstances the team may be an ad hoc group of willing
volunteers. Emergency response team members ideally are trained and prepared to
fulfill the roles required by the specific situation (for example, to serve
as incident commander in
the event of a large-scale public emergency). As the size of an incident grows,
and as more resources are drawn into the event, the command of the situation
may shift through several phases. In a small-scale event, usually only a
volunteer or ad hoc team may respond. In events, both large and small, both
specific member and ad hoc teams may work jointly in a unified command system. Individual team members can be trained in various aspects of the
response, be it medical assistance/first aid, hazardous materials spills, hostage situations, information systems attacks or
disaster relief. Ideally the team has already defined a protocol or set of
actions to perform to mitigate the negative effects of the incident.

Emergency Committee should establish a team or teams of volunteer staff
from each section of the agency to take part in salvaging records after
identifying the threat. All response team members must be accessible by
telephone for after hours call-out. Each team must have a leader and deputy. In
a group, one teams  should have no more
than six to eight members and include management, technical, administrative and
operational staff. Teams will need to be trained in response and recovery
techniques and have good knowledge of preventive measures. Teams will need to
meet at least once a year and be informed of changes in the Disaster
Preparedness Plan.








5.4 Equipment and materials

To ensure efficient recovery of
records it is essential that you have appropriate

equipment and materials readily
available. Agencies should purchase the following

equipment and materials
for a disaster kit:

Paper towels

Mops, bucket

Blank newsprint roll of

polyethylene plastic


Freezer paper

Plastic garbage bins

extension cords


Paper, pencils

Plastic bin liners

rubber gloves

Scissors, tape

Plastic string, pegs




Plastic tubing

Electric fans


Absorbent cloths

Plastic paper clips

Surgical type gloves


1 : Materials for disaster kit

items should be stored near the main entrance and be easily accessible to emergency
response teams

Identify priorities for salvage

is essential that agencies are aware of and identify the following categories
of records to assist in the efficient recovery of records.

Vital records

records are those deemed essential to reconstruct and continue operations of the
agency and to protect its organizational, legal and financial interests.
Generally, only 2-3 per cent of an agency’s records are vital records. A vital
record, it must be remembered, is not necessarily one with long-term value; it
may only have short term value, eg lists of people currently entitled to

General records

records may included the following: permanent value general
correspondence of central offices or central boards, committees, easily
identifiable items or small groups of items of historical or artistic interest,
eg plans or drawings, diaries and personal papers of ministers, records
of personal interest, eg naturalization records, crew and passenger lists
control records, eg indexes, registers, vulnerable records. These
include magnetic tapes, photographic prints and films.







Computer systems requirements

All computer
software needs certain hardware components or other software resources to be
present on a computer so that it can be used efficiently. These prerequisites are known as
(computer) system requirements and are often used as a guideline as
opposed to an absolute rule. Most software defines two sets of system
requirements: minimum and recommended. With increasing demand for higher
processing power and resources in newer versions of software, system
requirements tend to increase over time. Industry analysts suggest that this
trend plays a bigger part in driving upgrades to existing computer systems than
technological advancements. A second meaning of the term of System
requirements, is a generalization of this first definition, giving the
requirements to be met in the design of a system or sub-system. Typically an
organization starts with a set of business requirements and then derives the
System requirements from there. It is essential that your agency’s computer
system programs are backed up on a regular basis. Every IT Section in
organization should be able to provide with it’s back-up schedule for inclusion
in plan. If IT Section is not on site, it may not be necessary to include this
information in plan.

5.7 Disaster
preparedness networks


According to Margaret Rouse a network
disaster recovery plan is a set of procedures designed to prepare an
organization to respond to an interruption of network services during a natural
or manmade catastrophe. Once an agency has started to prepare a
Disaster Preparedness Plan it is a good idea to coordinate with other agencies
that have offices in the building or in adjacent buildings. In this way a
network for cooperation in times of disaster can be established between an
agency and others. One example of this might be for agencies in adjacent
buildings to have off-site storage agreements for back-up tapes.

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