5. Discussion This section perfectly elaboratesthe findings section to provide a better approach to getting answers to the questions related to the role of women in Pakistan. This chapter hasbeen divided into several parts and the former explains the motivationalaspects of the empowerment that led women to step outside and have their ownindividual business lives. The second one discusses the facilities provided bythe government to the women in order tohave empowered hearts around the country.
The last one explains the role-playing that this Mastung project did onchanging the lives of women. 5.1 Productive growth and motivation Among the entire women population inthe district, about 82% of them had low education level. That meant manyrespondents didn’t go to college to have a graduation degree. It was quite hardfor them to find any kind of work for becoming economically independent and havesocial freedom. Moreover,it was equally difficult for them to have higher education in Mastung sincethere was less opportunity for achieving their prescribed goals.
Other factorsthat might act as obstacles between them and higher studies can also be socialpressure, family responsibilities, gender inequalities, lack of confidence andso on. No lectured motivation to women also seemed to be a cause of lower levelof education in females who ultimatelydecided to be happy with their household work rather than following dreams. Itwas noted that the literacy rate in many rural areas had significantly beenlower than that of urban. That means if the rural areas had a literacy rate of 50% then the urban will leadthe field of study by earning 80% growth in education. The fact that menusually had higher chances of getting a higher education than the women also highlightsthe point of illiteracy in women. Presently, about 65% chances were there inrural areas for the proper growth and education of women where that of men had80% and plus. And yet, women desired to pursue economic growth for the benefitof their self-confidence and their entirefamily. Women who wanted to pursue thisgrowth usually have a motivational factor of trying to get a better life fortheir family.
The uniqueness that the researchers could see was the supportthey got from their families and friends. They didn’t expect this. The findingssection elaborately explains how the majorityof these women didn’t face any problem, rather they got all the help theyneeded from their family members. Among all, 18% respondents have had to facesuch situation in the initial stages of business roles. The factor that easilymotivated then to perform their duties in spiteof the reversals was the desire to give a betterlife to their families and children. They wanted their children to havebetter education and nutritional health so that they can get to face a futurebetter then these women were living. The roots for this can belong to the factthat they themselves never had to face such a positive lives in theirchildhood, rather they were bereft of life’s necessities due to poverty. Wechildren, these respondents had to be away from education, health, and nutrition.
But they wanted to provideeverything to their offsprings that they themselves couldn’t get. Theobservation that the women belonging to higher caste would be given moreopportunities than the ones in lowercasts is an eye-opening one. The womenwho possessed a higher graduated degreeor similar educational level didn’t seem to be having lower cast.
According toABD report, middle and higher class women could find access to eduction better than the ones belonging to poordimensions. 5.2 Various dimensions With the help of CDP, women wereable to get extra technical as well asmarketing knowledge by using it in practical life. They were easily able to usetheir knowledge related to the field intheir business lives to gain self-confidenceand economic development of their respective families. Zaineb confirmed this (2009) by saying that the skills anddevelopment process that they were receiving from training classes played a vital role inachieving higher growth of their families andthemselves. The research results state acertain positive impact that women started to see in their lives after havingto perform business-related activities intheir day-to-day lives. They had achieved a betterlevel of living and could even save money for emergencies. Some women,who got micro-crediting facility fromgovernmental firms, were able to get better financial returns from theirbusiness.
The usual narrow-minded and traditional thinking in the male dominant societyis that the females should always be a “stay at home” housewivesrather than become the lead reason for regular earnings. This social pressuremade them accept the rules of their family members and stayed at home. Thepresent data, however, opposes this mentality and narrow-mindedness and shows that women were easily supported bytheir family members.
Respondents didn’t have to face any difficultiesregarding the admission process and in fact,male members of their families helped them at every cost. The primary reason for this behavior might be the influenceof neighboring cities such as Quetta, Katal, Mach, Dhadar and so on. In some ofthese cities, men and women freely work together. Since the rural men would gothere for earning a livelihood, theywould perceive different reality thanthat of traditional mindset they originally had. Seeing other females achievinggreat heights, they could feel that the women in their respective familiesshould be able to get equal opportunities for proper growth and development.Another factor that can contribute to this phenomenon is that some of these menmight even work with the seniors whocould be females. They might have had realized the power and strength thatfemales possess and thus, their pride and ego of being a “dominantmale” could vanish into nothingness.
Women happily stated that thehousehold activities did not come between the performanceof their business related activities and their families helped them greatly.This had been an important factory for the growth of the women since if therewas any disagreement on any of the sides the situation could have had been outof hands and the women could have had faced worst problems such as divorce orclosed business. It has been long observed by Nestvogel and Klein (1992) thatwomen’s social status is affected bysociety and domestic norms. 5.3 Economic growth The results provide enough proof ofthe growing well-being of the women,especially living in the rural areas of Mastung. Their level of poverty hasreduced and the income their family had previously earned was increased. One ofthese women also noted the realistic fact that since men are being unemployedin today’s fast pacing world, the possibility of becoming poorer would be increased.
And thus, the burdengoes on women’s shoulder and they are also desired to contribute to giving financial assistance to theirhusbands. Majority of women could feel happy by having to save enough money fortheir future and possible emergencies. It’sbecause of their hard work, one of them even managed to get employment in theone of the nearby city’s private firm. Respondents have given easy access the firms that provided financial assistanceand facilities like micro-credit andmicrofinance facilities to the respondents. The only problem they had to facewas to have minimum marketing facility for their quality products and low wagesfor their hard work. The series ofcomplaints didn’t stop just there.
They also noted that as compared to males,the cost of sewing they received was half of what was expected. Even though thequality of work that women would provide was better than that of men, theywould still get a low wage, status, andmarketing support. 5.4 Making decision The process of decision making makesit much easier for the growth of a particular business at to achieve greatheights. It provides a certain firmness to the efficiencyfor the business to grow to its utmost limits. When women are responsible formaking certain household as well as business-relateddecisions, it can be seen as the empowerment of women that was the originalgoal of this research paper.
It can also be used as a measurement tool fortaking in the level and capacity empowerment that women have achieved. The decision making power shows the influentialpower that the women posses with respect to family members. But the researchhas done to make sure the outlined concepts and thoughts were true andsurprisingly the results did show the divided concepts that were previously notknown by many organizations around the district. Originally it was thought thatthe married women wouldn’t get the chance of being able to take any decision relatedto their business and family affairs. But the study and the results of it wereproved completely wrong since its the opposite what was found to be true. Themarried women were found to have firmness and confidence in their decision-making power and they were even seento handle their family affairs pretty well.
On the other hand, the unmarriedwomen were not able to take proper decision did to lack of mobility anddependence on parents for wellbeing. After the study, it was observed that about three forthof the entire population of women in Mastung district were able to tasks fulldecisions and only one fourth of them hadpartial access to their influential power towards the decision. Sajid and Khan(2011) also stated that the married women have a certain beneficiary factor andthat is their decision-making processthat they learn after getting married. They are practically forced to handletheir own affairs rather than being dependant on their parents for everything.
Unmarried girls didn’t have muchindependence since their wellbeing was being taken care of by their parents orsometimes even their brothers took part in taking decisions instead of theirparents. They ultimately had to follow the instructions and decisions made bytheir guardians. But in the present day, as informed by these respondents, thesituation is changing drastically. The prevailing viewpoint of these girls and unmarried women were seen as theunique factor in decision-making process.To some extent, unmarried were also given weight in decision-making capabilities by their brothers and parents. It was noted in a study (2002) that the womenwho were likely to go out alone had greater decision power on the householdplatform and could handle the affairs easily. The unmarried respondents werequestioned about this decision-makingcapacity and in reply, they told theinterviewer that they had the capacity of taking the decision of their marriagefreely.
Their parents would ask and consult with them regarding the subjectmatter. Many of them were happy to declare that they were not forced to havearranged a marriage before the right agecomes and they also were given enough independence of economy. As duly noted byADP, the rate of the age of women gettingmarried was surprisingly increased from17.
9 to 20.8 within 30 years of age span. Since the majority of the respondents were educated, they did not face anydifficulty is making the decisions regarding business ventures. Social economy and the aspect ofeducation being provided to these women proved to be an asset for the process of decision making.
It was firmly noted in2009 that many of such women were able to take blood decisions related to theirbusiness while other 57% took decisions being combined their husbands. Among therest of the candidates, about 15% of the remaining women let their husbands make all the decisions and other 3% women weredependent on male members of the family other than their husband. As many as 6 women were able to usetheir credited amount given by financial firms.
Aboveall, ifthey were educated and only 4 of them hadbeen living happy married lives. Only 2 of these women were widowed. Withrespect to finance and economic growth, the age and marital status of womenplayed a huge role in determining their decision making power and empoweringinfluence they had to help them achieve independence.
5.5 Facilities from Government Motivation factor had been asimportant as to make the decision for thegrowth of the economy in their day to daylives. If motivation could not be found elsewhere, self-motivation could be theonly available option around for real. And it needs a medium, the dream, tocome to the realistic platform and be used for the respondents. Aside from this, thegood hope for this motivation that had women going along with their desireswere the facilities provided by the governmental organizations. There have hadbeen multiple organizations, such as Mastung development project, that havecontributed much to the wellbeing of theentire poor residents.
Other social workers expressed that when thesegovernmental organizations target women they usually lack the framework of genderequality. They also acknowledged the power of skilled training and developmentprograms as well as crediting system that can provide these women severalpowerful ways for development and growth. Among the two, the former helped themin achieving business goals and established a businessfranchise. This fact was proved when this research was actually done bythe researchers.
All the respondents were able to find solace in the trainingprogram provided by the Mastung development project. The interview section thatwas organized by this project also went well and it was noted that the respondentshad great respect for the government facilities they were provided. They spokeabout how these facilities gave them initial help and hope that aided to becomethe focused motivation that helped in achieving their goals. Other than that,they guaranteed that this approach can lead to health, economic as well as empoweringaspect of reality. 5.
6 The role of Mastung developmentproject The Mastung project had been workingfor the wellbeing of the rural areas and to initiate a skillful development forwomen. The dimensions provided by this project acted as a catalyst that gavehope and motivation to the respondents for becoming independent and breaks the shackles of old traditional ideasthat limited their strengths. The women felt empowered by the admission of thisproject and learned multiple skillsthrough which they can lead happy lives ahead. Before this project started, womenhad no say in family decisions and they were not free to go out of theirhouses. They weren’t aware of their technical skills and capabilities of makingdecisions that led their small-scalebusinesses to ultimate heights.
Better training can be an asset to have a goodand fruitful life ahead (Haq 2002). It was not easy to have this projectfirmly established in such a strong traditional minded region. They faced oppressionfrom many people, even communities. But it had been good fortune for themanager of the project that he had a master degree in the subject socialworking and he skillfully handled the situation. But later everyone started toappreciate their endeavor since many men were also aware of the city life. Theycovered multiple ranges of subjects for improvement of the economy andempowerment of women such as child education, computer learning, businessskills, arts, production, industrial working and many more.
With many moreideas, they aim to have a better future ahead and if this project continues tothrive in that area, the development of women and economy is sure to occur. 6. Conclusion It started with the idea of initiating a Mastung development project in thedistrict and later it achieved great success. The management was found to be appreciableand there was the improved standard ofliving provided to the rural respondents that facilitated their growth. It grantedthem motivation to have a business, even if small-scale,for becoming as independent as women in urban areas. It created positive vibesaround the public mostly because of the happiness of women and the motivationallectures that they were providing. This had proved to be an asset to improvethe condition of women and their families in rural areas.
If such projects wereto initiate in every other rural area,they would surely taste the heights of growth and development. Women were able to learn the powerof making a decision and their confidenceincreased. The activities of child labor became significantly less as comparedto the pre-project days.
The better child-care, public health, nutritionalneeds, growing economy was seen after the project commenced. Other than that,they took many steps to remove the gender inequality from the minds of the public around the district. It successfullybroke the barriers of traditional rules and regulations freeing women to earntheir own livelihood. The financial assistance helped them achieve a great dealand this research project could see that these women have become much moreconfident and independent. 7. Recommendations There are several factors that canbe improved to provide better services to the people around the district suchas improving their budget. There should be an arrangementof weekly programs and seminars for the benefit of both the genders on thetopic of equality.
Courses regarding various skills and industrial trainingshould be initiated for the women to take another leap to achieve success. Presently,only females have been targeted for the improvement of economy and developmentof the country but in the near future, steps should be taken to have programsand targeting options for males either. Classes such as management of businessshould also take place for the post-business mode of the business entrepreneurs.There should be enough knowledge or training programs given to the familiesliving there about the facilities of the loanand other financial services initiated by the governmentso that they can get the successful benefitof it. There should be internship programs arranged for students to have the benefit of becoming works person. The center shouldalso take care of opportunities available tothe public in the district.
There should be pre-arranged classes and trainingprograms for career counseling purposes so that lost public can be benefitted.