Malaysia is one of the states that increasing the production of farm animal industry in Asean part. The productions of farm animal animate beings such as cowss, sheep, caprine animal, American bison, domestic fowl and swine are increasing every twelvemonth to back up the increasing degree of self-sufficing. Research done by Department of Veterinary Services on livestock population found that the Numberss of farm animal in 2008 are 3,277,158 and from that sum, swine is the highest population with 1,733,466 animate beings ( DVS, 2010 ) . However, statistics present by Department Of Statistics Malaysia on the farm animal sub-sector based on the Annual Census of Agricultural Constitutions that was conducted in 2009 for mention twelvemonth 2008 shown that the domestic fowl agriculture contributed the largest per centum in the farm animal industry with 53.0 % , followed by hog farming 21.5 % , cattle farming 18.4 % and other farm animal farming 7.1 % . Although the productions of animate being farm animal are increasing, it still non plenty for self-sufficing particularly for cowss, sheep and caprine animal ( DOS, 2009 ) .
GOAT PRODUCTION IN MALAYSIA.
In caprine animal production, populations of caprine animals in Malaysia are still low compared to other carnal production. In 2004, the caprine animal populations in Malaysia are merely 264,394 and increase to 437,805 in 2008 ( DVS, 2010 ) . However, this sums still non plenty to back up self-sufficient non merely mouton, but besides for milk. Thus, authorities wants to increase the production of caprine animals to 25 % by 2010.
There are many attempts taken by authorities in order to accomplish the mark to increase the caprine animal production in Malaysia from better the farming pattern, nutrition ( Vidyadaran, 1988 ) , authorities policies, aid to increase smallholder husbandmans and utilize new engineerings. One of the new engineerings that were introduced to increase the production of caprine animals was by utilizing oestrus synchronism.
PROBLEM IN OESTRUS SYNCHRONISATION.
Normally, the husbandmans in Malaysia are depends on natural oestrus rhythm in order to engender theirs animate beings. Therefore, the productions of caprine animals are still at the same degree and can non increase. The effectual manner is by utilizing oestrus synchronism. However, in order to use these new engineerings in Malaysia, there was deficiency of information of the consequence and the protocol of oetrus synchronism in caprine animals. So the research on the consequence of two protocol heat synchronism protocol will give the husbandmans information about the effectual heat synchronism protocol and aid to increase the population of caprine animals in Malaysia.
OBJECTIVES OF STUDY.
The purpose of this experiment was to look into the consequence of two protocol utilizing CIDR ( Controlled Internal Drug Release ) on heat synchronism in Boer caprine animals by step the figure of animate being comes to oestrus, to find the clip of animate beings show oestrus mark, and to measure hormonal degree ( Lipo-Lutin ) before and after synchronism between two synchronism protocols. All the consequences will give the appropriate heat synchronism protocol that suited and economical to applied by husbandman in Malaysia.
CIDR intervention for 14 yearss with conjugate of 400 IU PMSG and 0.05 milligrams cloprostenol give better consequence in oestrus synchronism comparison to CIDR intervention for 9 yearss with conjugate of 0.05 milligram cloprostenol.
WHAT IS OESTRUS SYNCHRONISATION?
Oestrus synchronism is a direction pattern that used to bring on heat and ovulation in a group of animate being in a farm at the same clip. This pattern can be applied to farm animate being such as cow ( Deutscher, 2010 ; Patterson et. Al, 2003 ; Mapletoft et. Al, 2003 ) , cervid ( Eveline et.al, 2009 ) , sheep and caprine animal ( Wildeus, 1999 ; Freitas, 1996 ; Alacam et. Al, 1984 ) .
This pattern is chiefly focused to pull strings the luteal or follicular stage of the oestrous rhythm ( Wildeus, 1999 ; Patterson, 2003 ) , control heat and ovulation in cycling females and genteelness can be conducted within short period ( Deutscher, 2010 ) .
History OF OESTRUS SYNCHRONISATION
The histories of oestrus synchronisation start long clip ago. This approved through the surveies on initiation of the heat utilizing male consequence ( Lamont, 1964 ; Shelton, 1960 ) , and utilizing the endocrine such as Lipo-Lutin, pregnant female horse serum gonadotropin and sex commanding endocrines ( Marincowitz, 1968 ; Marincowitz, 1967 ; Corner and Allen, 1929 ) . However, there are more surveies and publication on the oestrus synchronism in past 30 old ages. The developments in the surveies change the technique of oestrus synchronism from traditional protocol into the modern protocol that gives more effectual consequence. The modern protocols of oestrus synchronism were developed since 1960 ‘s which the debut of intravaginal steroid devices in sheeps and in cowss in 1970 ( Gordon, 2004 ) .
ADVANTAGES OF OESTRUS SYNCHRONISATION
There are many advantages from utilizing oestrus synchronism techniques to bring on heat. Oestrus synchronism allowed the husbandman to engender a group of animate being by greater usage of superior sire through unreal insemination or natural coupling at the same clip. Therefore, this can better the direction particularly in reproduction direction pattern and record maintaining in a farm such as better allocate and works selling schemes. It saves clip and labor in observing heat ( Gordon, 2004 ) .
Besides that, oestrus synchronism can cut down the carnal reproduction jobs such as abortion, increase the per centums of animate being exhibiting heat, improved birthrate and ovulation. Oestrus synchronism besides allows more unvarying groups of immature, which can be reared to market weight more easy than those born in uncontrolled births with good growing rate and high ablactation weight. Another advantage of oestrus synchronism is it can be usage for superovulation in embryo transportation procedure ( Gordon, 2004 ) .
TECHNIQUES OF OESTRUS SYNCHRONISATION.
There are many methods can be use to bring on heat. Oestrus can be induced utilizing changing techniques included change of light forms technique, use of societal inputs such as exposure to buck, hormonal interventions or the combination of two or more techniques.
All the methods have different response to the animate being ‘s oestrus rhythm. Light interventions that use to change photoperiod response and excite the heat on animate being are well-known method in the dairy caprine animal industry ( Whitley and Jackson, 2004 ) . This intervention can be replaced by utilizing the melatonin that besides can change photoperiod response in the animate being. Research by Wuliji et Al. ( 2003 ) founded that the disposal of melatonin for oestrus synchronism give better consequence on gestation in caprine animal compared to light exposure method. However, the response of light exposure method can be increase by combine both light and melatonin method.
Another method in oestrus synchronism is by pull stringsing the societal end product such as vaulting horse or male exposure ( Kusina et al. , 2000 ; Ishwar and Pandey, 1992, Chemineau, 1987 ) ) . This method was done by open female to the male after a period of isolation. The presence of male animate being can trip the hormonal alterations and excite the heat in female animate being. The exposure to male consequence is mediated through alterations in pulsatile GnRH release from the hypothalamus, selectively increasing of Luteinizing Hormone ( LH ) ( Wildeus, 1999 ) . The response of male consequence on heat rhythm are depend by such factors included the organic structure status of male ( Walkden-Brown et al. , 1993a ) , the helping capacity and sexual aggressiveness of male ( Walkden-Brown et al.,1993b ; Perkins and Fitzgerald, 1994 ) and the different between contact type of male to female animate being which are immediate, fence-line or intermittent ( Walkden-Brown et al.,1993c ) .
However, the hormonal interventions seem to be more efficient to bring on estrous in female animate being particularly in minor animate being like caprine animal and sheep. Examples of hormonal interventions included melatonin, progestogens ( either administered orally, injection or by intravaginal releasing devices ) , gonadothropins endocrines and prostaglandins ( PGF ) entirely or in combination ( Whitley and Jackson, 2004 ) .
Gonadothrophins endocrine and prostaglandins can be use as the chief intervention ( Iswar et al.,1992 ; Alacam et al. , 1985 ) or as co-treatment ( Uslu, 2009 ; Dogan, 2008 ) . Gonadothropins endocrine are included the Gonadothropins Releasing Hormone ( GnRH ) , Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadothropin ( PMSG ) , Human Chorionic Gonadothropin ( human chorionic gonadotropin ) and Equine Chorionic Gonadothropin ( electrocardiogram ) . The illustration of prostaglandin is cloprostenol.
The gonadothropin and prostaglandin intervention are command the oestrus rhythm by ending the luteal stage through arrested development of the principal luteal ( Wildeus, 1999 ) . Survey by Nuti et Al. ( 1992 ) for the consequence of cloprostenol injection on estrous response, clocking to oestrus and the LH rush in dairy caprine animals shown there were no different response when 125 µg cloprostenol was injected on vitamin D 6 and d 12. The animate beings show behavioural heat within 46 to 48 hr average clip from injection with 95-100 % of does reacting.
The efficaciousness of the gonadothropin endocrine and prostaglandin are different between as the chief intervention and co-treatment. This is proved with survey by Patterson et Al. ( 1995 ) on the consequence of prostaglandin entirely and MGA intravaginal sponge to oestrus response, synchronized construct, gestation rate and fruitfulness in the postpartum cow. The consequences shown that the MGA-PG spring higher consequence compare to PG entirely.
Progestins can be classified as a group of endocrines. Progestins besides called progestagens or progestogen. Progestogens is a portion of the five major categories of steroid endocrines which are besides contain estrogens, androgens, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids ( Wikipedia, 2010 ) . One of the feature of progestins is they have basic 21 C skeleton called a pregnane skeleton ( C21 ) . All steroids with a pregnane skeleton, that is, both of course happening and man-made 1s, exogenic or man-made endocrines are included as the progestin category of endocrines. The illustration of progestins endocrine is progesterone ( P4 ) .
Progestins get its name for their map in keeping gestation ( pro gestational ) . Progestins are besides present at other stages of the oestrous and catamenial rhythms. Beside, the other maps of progestins including control birth procedure, antiandrogen, and command Cachexia Syndrome. Due to the maps of progestins chiefly in control catamenial and estrous rhythm, progestins are used as a method to bring on heat.
There are many types of progestin formulated to bring on heat in caprine animals. One of that is norgestomet which available for usage in caprine animals and sheep ( Wildeus, 1999 ; Mellado et al. , 1998 ) . This progestin merchandise was marketed under the name SyncroMate-B ( SMB ) . The consequence of norgestomet will be more effectual ( 100 % in heat within 9 yearss ) when gonadotrophin co-treatment were usage at remotion ( Oliveira et al. , 2001 ) . Norgestomet besides can be found in ear implant signifier.
At recent old ages, where the manufactured of norgestomet merchandise are no longer, the new merchandises of progestin were introduced to bring on heat. The progestin sponge incorporating fluorogestone ethanoate ( FGA ) and methyl acetoxy Lipo-Lutin ( MGA ) take placed as the option to norgestomet to increase the response of progestin in induced the heat. The sponge is intravaginal devices that normally inserted over period 9 to 19 yearss ( Wildeus, 1999 ) and will let go of the Lipo-Lutin in the vaginal during interpolation period. In the early application of intravaginal devices to bring on heat, the intervention periods are longer within 14 to 19. In general, the longer the progestogen was administered to animal, the higher rate of estrous synchronism, but the lower the birthrate of the synchronised animate beings However, surveies found that excessively long of administrated of progestin intervention will ensue low birthrate ( Diskin et al. , 2002 ; Vinoles et al. , 2001 ) . Hence, more surveies were done to compare the respond of the progestin intervention period and came out with the consequence that the shorter progestin intervention can better the birthrate ( Fonseca, 2004 ) .
There are differences response of heat when intravaginal sponges were applied because depend on species, strain, co-treatment, direction and coupling system ( Wildeus, 1999 ) .
Many surveies were done to compare the effectual of intravaginal sponge and norgestomet in induced the heat. One of the surveies was done by Kusina et Al. ( 2000 ) where compare the norgestomet ear implant with natural Lipo-Lutin in Mashona does within 14 yearss intervention. The consequences were reported with 93 % and 83 % bred within 21 yearss and 64 % and 70 % pull the leg ofing for sponges and implant.
The intravaginal sponges come with different dose of progestins. For illustration, intravaginal sponges can incorporate 15, 30, 45 and 60 milligram of MGA. However, survey by Igleasias et Al. ( 1997 ) on the consequence of different doses of MGA found that there are no different in the per centum of does ovulating ( 96.8 % ) or in ovulation. Other survey on the consequence of different doses of progestin was done by Freitas et Al. ( 1996 ) by utilizing two interpolation of intravaginal FGA sponges on Day 1 and Day 7 or Day 9 of an 11 day-treatment period in Alpine and Saanen caprine animals. The caprine animals were received 400IU PMSG and 50µg of cloprostenol 48 hours before sponge remotion. The consequence from the survey shown that there were no differences in per centum of does exhibiting oestrus between does supplemented with one sponge and does supplemented with extra FGA sponges on Day 7 or Day 9. Other than MGA in intravaginal sponges form, it besides can be in feed addendum that fed to the animate being to bring on the heat and better the birthrate.
Besides norgestomet and MGA and FGA, there is another progestin merchandise that can give more effectual consequence on initiation the heat. The merchandise is Controlled Internal Drug Release ( CIDR ) . The information about the CIDR will be discuss in the following subject.
CONTROLLED INTERNAL DRUG RELEASE ( CIDR ) .
CIDR is a new method to bring on heat in caprine animals ( Jonathan, 1993 ) . It was usage since early 1990 ‘s for induce heat in little ruminant. Controlled internal drug release ( CIDR ) is an intravaginal device that contains Lipo-Lutin. Protocol for the usage of CIDR devices are normally same to protocol for intravaginal sponges. It is T- molded devices ( DeJarnette, 2004 ; Darrel, 2004 ) that can be present the natural Lipo-Lutin into the carnal organic structure during intervention. Other description is from Wheaton and Wildeus province that the CIDR as constructed of a progesterone-impregnated medical Si elastomer molded over a nylon nucleus.
CIDR come in T-shaped where the wing of the insert prostration to organize a rod that can be inserted into the vaginal utilizing an applier with helper of some gel ( the gel usage as the lubricator during CIDR interpolation ) . Opposite of the wing, a tail is attached that facilitate remotion of device in the terminal of intervention. A nylon spinal column act as anchor to the CIDR and covered with Lipo-Lutin impregnated silicone that release a comparatively changeless dose of Lipo-Lutin during in vaginal ( Darrel, 2004 ) .
There are two types of CIDR that normally use in heat synchronism for little ruminant. CIDR-S and CIDR-G are two normally applied that contain from 9 % to 12 % ( 330 mg Lipo-Lutin ) of Lipo-Lutin degree ( Wildeus, 1999 ; Wheaton, 1988 ) . This Lipo-Lutin degree will diminish during the CIDR applied in the vaginal. It is more efficient in let go ofing the endocrine contains in the devices into the carnal organic structure comparison to vaginal sponge ( Hamra et al, 1986 ) .
CIDR were developed and introduced as the option to progestogen sponges in oestrus synchronism protocol. The use of CIDR provided more advantages compared to the sponges. For illustration, the design of CIDR-S eliminated the accretion of fetid mucous secretion that can see it discharged upon the remotion of sponges. Besides, CIDR have the lower loss rates, bring forth higher per centum of carnal semen to oestrus, and a shorter continuance to onset of heat after devices remotion ( Lynch, 1985 ) . Otherwise, the utilizing of intravaginal sponges either with concurrence of endocrines to synchronise the heat cause uncomfortableness to animal and may adhere to the vaginal wall causation job when remotion ( Holtz, 2005 ) . Therefore, the utilizing of CIDR is best alternate to intravaginal sponge.
In a survey of the consequence utilizing the CIDR on the heat responses, the Ewe that treated for 14 yearss with 9 % Lipo-Lutin CIDR-S and 60 milligram MAP sponges during engendering season shown that the CIDR-S exhibited earlier and more compact of heat ( Rhodes and Nathanielsz, 1988 ) . The effectivity of the CIDR in oestrus synchronism can be increase by utilizing co-treatment disposal. Study reported by Oliviera et al. , ( 2001 ) shown that application of CIDR for nine yearss with combined intervention ( 100 IU of electrocardiogram and 0.05 milligram of cloprostenol at removal give 100 % of oestrus response within 24 hours in 20 does. Other survey where 30 does treated with CIDR for 16 yearss with co intervention 300 IU of PMSG at CIDR remotion give the same consequence which was 100 % shown heat within 27.2±0.40.
Picture 1: CIDR and its applier
Earlier, progesterone finding were use to measure serum Lipo-Lutin concentrations in order to observe gestation in caprine animals ( Corteel et al. , 1982, Bretzlaff 1981, Holdsworth et al. , 1979, Murray et al. , 1988 and Pennington et al. , 1982 ) . Normally, the sensing was done 21-24 yearss after engendering. Radioimmunoassay ( RIA ) technique was used since 1970 ‘s to find the serum Lipo-Lutin concentrations ( Yousefnajadian et al. , 1972 ; Faure, 1975 ; Van der Westhuysen, 1979 ) . A new method to mensurate Lipo-Lutin concentration by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay ( ELISA ) was described by new wave de Wiel and Koops ( 1986 ) modii¬?ed by Moeller ( 1991 ) .
MATERIALS AND METHODS
ANIMALS AND TREATMENTS
Experiment was conducted at Infoternak Farm, Sg Siput, Perak. Sixty female Boer caprine animals were used in this experiment. The caprine animals were fertile and healthy. The aged for all caprine animals were chose runing between one to two old ages olds. All does were at first kidding. The does were reared in the intensive system and receive grass, dressed ore and entree on H2O adlibitum. The does besides were supplied with urea salt blocks.
Department of energies were assigned indiscriminately into two groups ( n=30 per group ) . Each group was placed in four pens indiscriminately. The average animate being organic structure weights for both interventions are 37.81±1.48 for Treatment 1 and 40±1.30 for Treatment 2. Both groups were received one of two interventions as follow: ( I ) Treatment 1 ( T1 ) , where the does received CIDR for 14 yearss. All does in Treatment 1 so received 400 IU of FOLLIGON® ( FOLLIGON® is a complex glycoprotein obtained from serum gonadotropin of pregnant female horses ) and 0.05 milligram of Estrumate® ( Estrumate® contain active component of 250 µg/mL cloprostenol as the Na salt ) a twenty-four hours ( 24 hours ) before remotion of CIDR ( Day 8 ) . ; ( two ) Treatment 2 ( T2 ) , where the does received CIDR for nine yearss and received 0.05 milligram of Estrumate® prior to remotion of CIDR ( Day 14 ) . The experiment was be done in same period where the CIDR for T2 was inserted on twenty-four hours four ( D4 ) of T1 to acquire same clip of CIDR remotion for both interventions. The application of the interventions was shown in Diagram 1 below.
Injection of 0.5 milligrams Estrumate® n 400IU FOLLIGON
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Calciferol
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Calciferol
Injection of 0.5 milligrams Estrumate®
Diagram 1: Ministered Of Treatments and Blood Samplings
Blood samples were collected through jugular venas for four times during the experiment. The samples obtained before interpolation of intravaginal devices ( D0 ) , prior to injection of Estrumate® or/and FOLLIGON ( D13 for T1 and D8 for T2 ) , at remotion of devices ( D14 for T1 and D9 for T2 ) and 48 hours after remotion of intravaginal devices ( D16 for T1 and D11 for T2 ) . Blood samples were collected into field vacutainer tubing ( 5ml ) and stored at room temperature for one hr before transportation into icebox for one dark. After bloods undergo centrifugation at 3000 – 3500 revolutions per minute for 15 proceedingss, serum was transfer into eppendorf tubing and shop at -20 & A ; deg ; C in icebox for analysis of Lipo-Lutin and estrogen in research lab. Path of blood sampling was shown by Diagram 1 above and represented by form ( )
Oestrus mark were observed at every 6 hours interval get downing from 24 hours remotion of intravaginal device. Each observation was conducted for 30 proceedingss. In every session, the heat mark and clip it occurred were recorded. First mark of heat was recorded when the does showed chase flagging. Others mark of heat were observed included mark of mounting, reddened vulva and standing to be mounted. The sensing of heat was done after 66 hours of intravaginal remotion.
Tail flagging mark is the mark when the tail of does raise and vigorous tail wave. In this experiment, tail flagging mark will be indicate as the first mark of heat. This state of affairs can be seen when the carnal start come to oestrus. Mounting can be defined as the state of affairs where the Department of Energy saddle horse to the other animate beings. Third mark which is standing to be mounted is when the animate being assumes an immobile stance or base still in response to coerce on its buttockss due to other carnal saddle horse on it. Last mark is reddened vulva where the country of vulva to red.
Picture 2: Sign of heat ( mounting and ready to be mounted )
Progesterone finding was done by utilizing Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay ( ELISA ) technique ( Radwanska et al. , 1978 ; Al- Soboiyl, 2009 ) . The Lipo-Lutin enzyme immunoassay kit ( Progesterone ELISA, IBL ) that provides stuff for the finding of Lipo-Lutin in serum and plasma was used in this analysis. For Lipo-Lutin finding, merely serum samples from blood taken before CIDR interpolation and after 48 hours after CIDR remotion of 48 selected animate beings were analysed.
First, the frozen samples were thawed at room temperature utilizing new disposable tips, 25 µl of criterion and samples were dispensed into appropriate well. The kit so was incubated at room temperature for five proceedingss. After five proceedingss, 200 µl enzyme conjugate were dispensed into each well. All the samples undergo exhaustively assorted for 10 seconds earlier incubated for one hr at room temperature.
Contentss of the well were briskly shake out after one hr before rinsed the well three times ( 400 µl per good for each clip ) with diluted wash solution ( 30 µl of wash solution was diluted with 1170 µl of distilled H2O ) . Then, the well was stroked aggressively on absorptive paper to take residuary droplets.
Each well was added 200 µl of substrate solution and was incubate for 15 proceedingss at room temperature. The enzymatic reaction was stopped after 15 proceedingss by adding 100 µl stop solution into each well. Within 10 proceedingss, the samples were read the optical denseness at 400±10 nanometer with a microtiter home base reader.
SAS 9.0 EDU Edition was used to analyse all the information and consequence. Chi-square analysis was used to compare the figure of carnal semen to oestrus. General Linear Model was used to analyse the average clip to onset of oestrus mark and differences of hormonal degree.
PERCENTAGE ANIMAL COMES TO OESTRUS.
Table 4.1: The Numberss of animate beings come to oestrus within 66 hours of observation.
Animals comes to oestrus ( % )
( 100 )
( 93.33 )
The consequence of the Numberss of animate beings come to oestrus show there is no important different ( p & A ; gt ; 0.05 ) between two interventions. All animate beings in T1 come to oestrus within 66 hours observation after CIDR remotion. However, there were two ( 6.77 % ) animate beings did non demo any oestrus behaviour or come to heat within the observation period.
TIME TO OESTRUS SIGNS.
Table 4.2: The average clip ( h ± SE ) of animate beings to demo oestrus behavioral.
58.4±2.303aValue within a column with the different superiors ( B ) are significantly different ( p & A ; lt ; 0.05 )
Table 4.2 shown the average clip ( ± SE ) of animate being came to the each heat mark for both interventions. From four different mark, merely tail flagging mark and standing mark show important different ( p & A ; lt ; 0.05 ) . There were large different hours observed between two interventions for animate being came to standing mark which is the oncoming of heat. There are 16.33±0.181 h different between T1 and T2. For tail flagging mark, there were 8.33±0.913 h different between both interventions. However, there were somewhat hr different observed for mounting mark and reddened vulva which were 7.4±0.765h and 4.72±0.013 H.
Table 4.3: Progesterone concentration ( ng/mL ±SE ) before CIDR interpolation and 48 hours after CIDR remotion.
Progesterone concentration ( ng/mL ±SE )
Before CIDR interpolation
48 hours after CIDR remotion
8.313 ± 0.883a
7.952 ± 1.635a
Value within a column with the different superiors ( B ) are significantly different ( p & A ; lt ; 0.05 )
Table 4.3 showed the Lipo-Lutin concentration on the blood before CIDR interpolation and 48 hours after CIDR interpolation. There is no important different ( p & A ; gt ; 0.05 ) of the Lipo-Lutin concentration mean in blood before CIDR interpolation and 48 H after CIDR remotion between T1 and T2 which is 0.361 ± 0.752 ng/mL and 1.208 ± 0.629 ng/mL difference. However, there is different of Lipo-Lutin degree between before CIDR interpolation and 48 H after CIDR remotion. The mean of Lipo-Lutin degree before CIDR interpolation is higher comparison to the mean of Lipo-Lutin degree 48 H after CIDR remotion.
Numberss OF ANIMAL COME TO OESTRUS
The consequence shown that there are consecutive of two oestrus synchronism protocol on the Numberss of animate beings come to oestrus. The consequence nevertheless did non back up the result of survey by Nasser ( 2008 ) where the consequence of the survey showed important different ( p & A ; lt ; 0.05 ) in heat response when Boer does were treated with CIDR plus 50 µg cloprostenol and/or 250 IU PMSG for 17 yearss. There are 100 % ( 21/21 ) of animate beings comes for heat for intervention with PMSG and 53.85 % ( 7/13 ) for intervention without PMSG. The obvious different between this survey and Nasser ‘s is the length of intervention period and this may be the cause of the differences of the consequence between both surveies. Too long of progestagen intervention will impact the follicle to go relentless and reduced the additions of extradiol during the arrested development of the principal luteal ( Taft et al. , 1996 ) . Gust et Al. ( 1984 ) reported that the increasing of the estradiol after arrested development of principal luteal will non assist in increasing LH degree that stimulate the oestrus..
In this experiment, there were two animate beings that did non come to estrus. It may be due to either in equal oestradiol secernment or the animate being shows soundless heat without any open marks of heat ( Romano et al. , 1998 ; Cardwell et al. , 1998 ; Mustafa et al. , 2007 ) . Besides that, the absences of PMSG that contain the FSH and LH which help the increasing of LH degree and trip the heat besides the factor of animate being do non or tardily to come to oestrus.
TIME TO OESTRUS SIGN.
The average clip of animate beings to demo oestrus mark were different between each mark. Tail flagging mark which is indicate the first mark of heat and standing mark which is the oncoming of heat shown the important different ( p & A ; lt ; 0.05 ) . The important different was expected and supported the survey by Al-Sobail ( 2006 ) where the T1 oestrus synchronization protocol excite the heat more rapid ( within 36 hr ) and Nasser ( 2008 ) reported that the T1 protocol give shorter heat response. The survey by Dogan ( 2008 ) besides found that the protocol of T1 was gives non merely early heat but besides more compact and shorter clip to onset of heat. However, in this survey the CIDR was replaced by
The important of both consequences may be due to the administrated of PMSG. The disposal of PMSG will shorter the clip to oestrus compared to the non PMSG intervention ( Ucar et al. , 2005 ) and pack the clip to onset of heat ( Freitas et al.,1996 ) .
Besides that, the long average clip to animate beings show oestrus mark may be due to the hormonal response in the organic structure same as the ground of the little figure of animate being that could non come to oestrus. It could be cause by unequal or slow oestradiol secernment ( Romano et al. , 1998 ; Cardwell et al. , 1998 ; Mustafa et al. , 2007 ) and delayed the trigger of LH that of import during heat.
Bottom of Form
The agencies of Lipo-Lutin concentration show no important different ( p & A ; gt ; 0.05 ) between T1 and T2 before CIDR interpolation and 48 hours after CIDR remotion. The degree of Lipo-Lutin was different between before CIDR interpolation and 48 hours after CIDR remotion may be due to the phases of oestrous rhythm in the animate beings. The animate beings may be in the luteal stage before the interpolation of CIDR. A survey by Khanum et Al. ( 2008 ) on the Lipo-Lutin degree in normal oestrus rhythm in Dwarf caprine animals shown that the Lipo-Lutin degree during luteal stage can top out into 7.7 ng/mL. However, the somewhat higher of Lipo-Lutin degree in this survey comparison to Khanum ‘s may be due to the strain of animate beings.
The lower agencies of Lipo-Lutin degree after 48 hours of CIDR remotion between two interventions may be due to the consequence of CIDR remotion. The remotion of CIDR that incorporating the Lipo-Lutin cause the rapid declined of Lipo-Lutin degree in blood ( Al- Sobaiyl, 2009 ; Khanum et al. , 2008 ) and do the exhibition of oestrus behaviour.
Both of the interventions enable to give more per centums of animate beings come to oestrus. However, T1 is more effectual on shortening the clip to oestrus and pack the oncoming of heat. Therefore as the decision, T1 which is CIDR intervention for 14 yearss with conjugate of 400 IU PMSG and 0.05 milligrams cloprostenol give better consequence in oestrus synchronism comparison to CIDR intervention for 9 yearss with conjugate of 0.05 milligram cloprostenol.
Due to the effectivity of CIDR intervention for 14 yearss with conjugate of 400 IU PMSG and 0.05 milligram cloprostenol in oestrus synchronism, farther survey should be done to compare the efficiency of the same protocol but altering into the different short period of the CIDR intervention in Boer caprine animal in Malaysia.