The article looks into the catastrophe direction in the national capital of India, “ Delhi ” . The focal point is on understanding the modes of yesteryear and the present and suggests steps for future catastrophe bar. An attempt has been made to understand the grounds that make Delhi catastrophe prone and an effort has been taken to propose the methodological analysis and stairss that can be taken in the signifier of structural and non – structural extenuation steps to better the hereafter catastrophe scenario. A pre-emptive attack is suggested for bring forthing effectual response and efficient execution. The article chalks a implicative program to restrict the influence every bit good to restrict the impact of any incident or of any negative impact originating out of any catastrophe in Delhi.
Although common adult male is non so familiar with the term catastrophe direction ; they are much aware of certain phenomena like Earthquake, Cyclone, Landslides and now even Tsunami. Since clip immemorial India is extremely prone to natural catastrophes. Today, from Kanyakumari to Himalaya, India does n’t hold any part exempted from one or another sort of catastrophe.
Harmonizing to a recent survey, 65 per cent of entire Indian land mass is extremely prone to earth temblor ; where as, Due to heavy inundations twelve per cent is submerged under H2O yearly ( Ministry of Home Affairs, 2004 ) . The latter entirely cost about 40 million Hectors of land mass. Besides, an 8000-KM stretch of Indian coastal line affects with the rage of cyclone in two seasons. That is to state eight per cent of the land is disturbed biannually with cyclones runing from low force per unit area to super cyclones, like the one, which perished decennaries of human attempts in Orissa seashore in 1999. Now the people of India particularly the coastal common people are much appalled with a new embodiment of nature ‘s rage i.e. Tsunami.
The ace cyclone in Orissa in October, 1999 and the Bhuj temblor in Gujarat in January, 2001 underscored the demand to follow a multi dimensional enterprise affecting diverse scientific, technology, fiscal and societal procedures ; the demand to follow multi disciplinary and multi sectoral attack and incorporation of hazard decrease in the developmental programs and schemes.
The attempts to fix a papers like this -The Suggestive Disaster Management Plan has received inspiration from such a scenario. The intent, purpose and purpose behind readying of the papers is to present the unique and tested method of catastrophe direction. Replacing the well-known traditional methods of catastrophe direction, one has to encompass decentralized attempts and people ‘s engagement. Key country of focal point in this article will be on happening manner for how to undertake such catastrophes.
The new set up of catastrophe direction, the traditional alleviation and rehabilitation section has been replaced with an thorough institutional mechanism. Emergent demand of planning, implementing and supervising catastrophe direction activities in normal clip has been felt and is taken under serious consideration.
Disaster Management –
At the planetary degree, there has been considerable concern over natural catastrophes. Even as significant scientific and material advancement is made, the loss of lives and belongings due to catastrophes has non decreased. In fact, the human toll and economic losingss have mounted. It was in this background that the United Nations General Assembly, in 1989, declared the decennary 1990-2000 as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction with the aim to cut down loss of lives and belongings and curtail socio-economic harm through conjunct international action, particularly in developing states.
Figure 1 Frequency and badness tendencies in catastrophes in the clip frame of Old ages 1991 – 2000
Before get downing on to the proposed program let us seek to take clasp of the term catastrophe direction. Disaster direction is a procedure or scheme that is implemented when any type of ruinous event takes topographic point. Sometimes referred to as catastrophe recovery direction, the procedure may be initiated when anything threatens to interrupt normal operations or puts the lives of human existences at hazard. Governments on all degrees every bit good as many concerns create some kind of catastrophe program that make it possible to get the better of the calamity and return to normal map every bit rapidly as possible.
Disaster direction occupies an of import topographic point in this state ‘s policy model as it is the hapless and the under-privileged who are worst affected on history of calamities/disasters. Catastrophes retard socio-economic development, farther impoverish the destitute and lead to recreation of scarce resources from development to rehabilitation and Reconstruction. In simple words we can depict catastrophe direction as a subject that involves fixing for catastrophe before it occurs, catastrophe response ( e.g. , exigency emptying, quarantine, mass decontamination, etc. ) , and back uping, and reconstructing society after natural or human-made catastrophes have occurred.
Proposed Location –
The present capital of India, Delhi, has been the capital metropolis of a sequence of mighty imperiums and powerful lands. The implicative program is particularly drafted maintaining in head the strategic importance and critical location characteristics of metropolis of Delhi. Vicinities and geographical characteristics of Delhi nowadayss alone challenges for catastrophe direction professionals and the techniques used here or the program that is chalked out specifically for this country can be easy replicated successfully anyplace in the universe with minor alterations plus accommodations to accommodate local demands.
Harmonizing to popular tradition, the metropolis has changed its vicinity a sum of seven times, although some governments, who take smaller towns and fastnesss into history, claim it has changed its site every bit many as 15 times. All of these locations are confined to a triangular country of about 70 square stat mis ( 180 square kilometer ) called the Delhi trigon. Making disaster direction important to the province, two sides of this trigon are represented by the bouldery hills of the Aravalli Range in the West and south, known as the Delhi Ridge, the 3rd side by the switching channel of the Yamuna River in the East, where falls Delhi North East.
Need for be aftering –
District North East of the National Capital Territory of Delhi is portion of the Yamuna River Edge, ipso facto, it is more prone to inundation and Earth Quake than the other territories. Adding to this, Delhi ‘s on Yamuna Pushta are timid with migrators from assorted parts of the state viz. Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab so away, making big figure of narrow lined relocation settlements, slums and industrial countries. Furthermore, in the latest seismal map of the county, Delhi falls under Zone IV, which means it is extremely vulnerable to multi jeopardies, particularly Earth Quake.
Some of the common catastrophes in North East Delhi could be listed as regular and increased figure of fire jeopardies, seasonal inundation state of affairs, detonation of LPG cylinders doing multi hurt, decease and loss of belongings, uneven instances of public violences and force, big figure of migration from other provinces making multiple slums and contagious diseases in the slum and relocation settlements. Harmonizing to Delhi Fire Service records ; there were 13336 instances of fire accidents in the Delhi for the last 10-year span. If this figure itself is distributed for each individual twelvemonth the figure comes as 1333 instances per twelvemonth. This is an alarming figure, which calls attending of the Delhi disposal and catastrophe directors.
Changing context of catastrophe direction
Taking all this in to consideration the Government of Delhi, District North East has announced a series of enterprises for better catastrophe direction with cooperation of all line sections, voluntary organisations, national and international NGOs and more over the local occupants. The former alleviation and rehabilitation subdivision of the Government of Delhi under Revenue Department has been renamed as Department of Disaster Management every bit good as a separate District Disaster Management Committee has been constituted under the Deputy Commissioner, North East to look after catastrophe direction activities.
It ‘s a common belief of both decision makers and the populace that catastrophe direction starts with distribution of alleviation stuffs and ends with Restoration of the damaged substructures. But in existent state of affairs, alternatively of waiting for catastrophes to acquire it managed, one should get down readyings good in progress so that when jeopardy comes, it will non trip as a catastrophe. Interestingly, even the stage of deliverance and alleviation should be with a developmental touch. There is a paradigm displacement from the traditional charity attack of catastrophe direction to a professional manner of managing it.
Aims of be aftering –
Every planning has its ain purposes and aims. Although the characteristics of all territories in Delhi are non much different, there are certain curious features that make the Delhi ‘s unique. In the really fact, the planning of any activity in the Delhi shall be specific and down to Earth. For a better development and sustainability of growing a better planning is required.
The wide guideline that this proposed program follows is to guarantee that catastrophe hazard decrease is a national and a local precedence with a strong institutional footing for execution. The other basic aims of the District Disaster Management Plan are as follows –
Institutionalization of catastrophe direction in territory disposal
Promoting a civilization of catastrophe readiness in the territory
Vulnerability decrease and catastrophe extenuation through better planning procedure
Creation of the best Govt. mechanism to manage any unprecedented events
Instantaneous response and effectual determination devising in catastrophes
Better coordination of alleviation and rehabilitation wake of a catastrophe
Better coordination of all line sections in catastrophe direction
Encouraging and authorising the local community to have catastrophe direction
Regular update of resources available in and around the Delhi
Methodology of program development –
The major stairss involved in fixing the program document include the undermentioned stairss:
Data aggregation from all line sections,
Discussion with experts,
Mentioning national and international literatures,
Preparation of action programs for sections,
Fixing bill of exchange program papers,
Mock drill to look into the viability and feasibleness of execution methodological analysis,
Vide circulation for public and departmental remarks and
Preparation of the concluding program papers
Hazard, exposure and capacity analysis –
Delhi is prone to multi jeopardies like temblor, inundation, fire accident, LPG cylinder blast every bit good as edifice prostration and epidemics. The low socio-economic development in the Delhi along with the high denseness of population is one of the most of import grounds for this threat. The history of catastrophes in the Delhi will supply a clear image of the exposure to which the Delhi is prone. The full province of Delhi falls under Seismic Zone IV in the national seismal map.
This means the province is next to the high exposure country i.e. zone V. The Tectonic activities under the National Capital Region are switching fleetly. The increased figure of illegal building patterns in the country has been one of the forces behind this. The Yamuna Pushta of the National capital Region of Delhi has been considered as the most vulnerable country in Delhi itself.
Peoples populating in District North East are fundamentally migrators from assorted parts of the other provinces. And a big figure of people are illiterate. As per a recent survey, approximately 30 per cent of Delhi ‘s population is illiterate and a 60 per cent of the entire nonreader in Delhi are from the Eastern territories of the province. This shows how vulnerable the Delhi is. Even a minor accident turns as a catastrophe due to the socio-cultural back land of the Delhi.
Another instance of the worst catastrophe in District North East was the inundation caused by flood of River Yamuna in 1980s. During that inundation, readiness and direction was non up to day of the month and even disaster direction was non every bit popular as it is now. Modern machineries and advanced engineerings were non available that clip to contend against the catastrophe. In the present scenario, there is no range of prevising for any catastrophe in the Delhi unless it is in the chief land of the Delhi. Although warning has been issued for a instance like fire accident, the fire contending squads can non make the topographic point in clip due to congested traffic and narrow route. The fruit and vegetable sellers and other little concern units occupy most of the roads every bit good.
Another instance of the worst catastrophe in District North East was the inundation caused by flood of River Yamuna in 1980s. During that inundation, readiness and direction was non up to
day of the month and even disaster direction was non every bit popular as it is now. Modern machineries and advanced engineerings were non available that clip to contend against the catastrophe. In the present scenario, there is no range of prevising for any catastrophe in the Delhi unless it is in the chief land of the Delhi. Although warning has been issued for a instance like fire accident, the fire contending squads can non make the topographic point in clip due to congested traffic and narrow route. The fruit and vegetable sellers and other little concern units occupy most of the roads every bit good.
The route and ways taking to the Delhi caput quarters are narrow in nature and old in capacity. Increased figure of Cycle Rickshaws and trucks on these roads create acute job even in exigency traffic. Lack of over Bridgess over Vikash Marg and GT route every bit good as Wazirabad Road may queer advancement in alleviation and response in catastrophe direction. All roads in the Delhi settlements are really narrow in nature and even one-year care is non suited.
Disaster Management Continuum –
Figure 2 the Disaster Management Continuum
Suggested Plan or Measures-
Delhi has to take a series of stairss to fix the community, decision makers and other stakeholders of catastrophe direction. Mock drills are to be organized in regular interval of clip to make awareness amongst the decision makers and community on farther demands for catastrophe direction. The altering construct of catastrophe direction has taken its birth in mere hypothesis. Today there is a paradigm displacement in the attack to disaster direction from a civilization of alleviation and rehabilitation to that of readiness and extenuation.
A better catastrophe direction with minimal exposure is possible merely by agencies of readiness and extenuation steps. Maximum the catastrophe readiness, minimum the exposure. Neither a catastrophe can be prevented nor diverted to any other topographic point. The lone possible thing is to minimise the consequence.
There shall be two attacks in catastrophe extenuation viz. structural extenuation and non-structural extenuation.
Non-structural extenuation program –
Delhi lies in the Gangetic Plain and de facto the eastern portion of Delhi is considered as the worst for catastrophes like temblor, inundation and fire. If the full metropolis falls in Zone IV, informally we can state that the East Delhi is in Zone V, which indicates the Delhi, as at high hazard to temblor. The province is prone to inundation from river Yamuna and the effect of inundation becomes misery to the eastern population particularly. In add-on to this, fire is a major concern for the Delhi as fire incidents have risen steeply in the last twosome of decennaries.
The non structural extenuation is fundamentally framed in such a manner that the whole population of the Delhi will be sensitized on catastrophe direction and their capacity is developed to get by up with a risky state of affairs. Delhi north E has specific program for non-structural extenuation steps which is an on-going procedure in assorted domains of life.
Structural extenuation steps –
It is immensely polar for the planning community to react towards catastrophe direction positively. The Third Master Plan for Delhi – 2021, which is under readying, should clearly come out with commissariats prescribed in the amended statute laws related to disaster direction. Urban catastrophe direction is closely connected to the wholesome procedure of urban development and hence needs a sincere incorporation in the development be aftering itself.
The Delhi shall take stairss for structural extenuation of catastrophe direction. The sections that are associated with development of residential and commercial secret plans shall strict the NOC norms. The Building codes shall be purely enforced in the Delhi. Merely seismically oriented applied scientists, contractors and Masons shall be given certifications for multi narrative buildings and existent estates. Simultaneously retrofitting is to be promoted with the adept advice. The possible two structural steps for catastrophe protection are retrofitting of the bing edifice and Earth Quake Resistant new building.
Expected Challenges in Implementing the program –
I. Policy and planning
aˆ? DRR non policy precedence due to viing development precedences
aˆ? DRR non widely recognized as a development concern hindering mainstreaming attempts
aˆ? Gap between rhetoric/vision & A ; existent commitment/action
aˆ? Minimal impact if non supported with resources/budget
aˆ? Minimal impact without capacities and accomplishments to implement
II. Legal and regulative model
aˆ? Legislation is of import, but does non vouch success
aˆ? Often non adapted to the worlds on the land
aˆ? Remain often in bill of exchange phase, non being adopted
aˆ? Problem of enforcement
aˆ? Need to turn to jobs of conflicting statute law
III. Organizational constructions
aˆ? Location of the organizing organic structure affairs ( ministry, degree in hierarchy )
aˆ? Match authorizations functions and structures – public disposal facets frequently ignored
aˆ? Decentralized DRM system shows greater possible for success
aˆ? Adapt to local organizational/administrative civilization
IV. Resources and capacities
aˆ? Fundamental to guarantee execution of policies, schemes, Torahs and ordinances
aˆ? Over-reliance on technocratic/scientific attack which is non adapted to local context and capacities
aˆ? Focus non merely on proficient accomplishments but besides on leading, direction, planning and cognition direction accomplishments
aˆ? Start with local capacities and cognition
Delhi has several defects even after being a national capital the past incidences of catastrophes and several other jeopardies or possible catastrophes looming big over the metropolis makes it a challenge for catastrophe directors. There is batch of work to be done and several serious attempts needed to be made in order to better run into the challenge of doing Delhi a catastrophe prone metropolis. The monstrous undertaking is to pull off the cultural diverseness and homo induced catastrophes as they are more easy governable and preventable along with doing maximal harm to life, wealth and public belongings and making inflow in rapid development of the metropolis in comparing to natural hazards and desolations of nature.
Disaster Management in India – a position study August 2004 Government of India, Ministry Of Home Affairs, National Disaster Management Division
District Disaster Management Plan, North East Delhi, Volume 1 and 2, Version 1.0, 2005-2006, Office of Deputy Commissioner ( NE ) Delhi