Abstract—
This paper is designed for LED
based street lights with auto intensity control using solar power from
photovoltaic cells interfaced to Raspberry Pi board. As awareness for solar
energy is increasing, more and more individuals and institutions are opting for
solar energy. Photovoltaic panels are used for charging batteries by converting
the sunlight into electricity. The intensity of street lights is required to be
kept high during the peak hours. As the traffic on the roads tends to decrease
slowly in late nights, the intensity can be reduced progressively till morning
to save energy. In High Intensity Discharge lamps (HID) the intensity is not
controllable by any voltage reduction method as the discharge path is broken.
LED lights are the future of lighting, because of their low energy consumption
and long life, they are fast replacing conventional lights world over. White
Light Emitting Diode (LED) can replace the High Intensity Discharge lamps (HID)
lamps where intensity control is possible by pulse width modulation. A
Raspberry Pi board is engaged to provide different intensities at the different
times of nights using PWM techniques, for energy saving, for solar based
system. Developed intelligent system turns the light ON and OFF depending on
the vehicle or pedestrian movement. Thus, the implementation of such system
will result in energy saving, lower cost of maintenance, increased lifespan and
hence the enhanced performance of the system.

 

Key words: LED Lamps, Raspberry pi, Sensors, LDR,
RFID card and Reader. 

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I.           
Introduction

The Street lights are the major requirements in
today’s life for safety purposes and avoiding accidents during night. Providing
street lighting is one of the most important and expensive responsibilities of
a city. Lighting can account for 10-38% of the total energy bill in typical
cities worldwide. Street lighting is a particularly critical concern for public
authorities in developing countries because of its strategic importance for
economic and social stability. The fixtures of street lights indirectly have
assisted the public and government in reduction of crime rate and accidents in
the area. It also encourages social inclusion by providing an environment in
which people feel they can walk in hours of darkness. Despite that in today’s
busy lifestyle no one bothers to switch it OFF/ON when not required.
Inefficient lighting wastes significant financial resources each year, and poor
lighting creates unsafe conditions. Energy efficient technologies and design
can cut street lighting costs dramatically.

    The main
consideration in the present field technologies are Automation, Power
consumption and cost effectiveness. Automation is intended to reduce man power
with the help of intelligent systems. Power saving is the main consideration
forever as the sources of the power are getting diminished due to various
reasons. Designing a cost-efficient system is very important as the requirement
is more. In order to overcome this problem, automatic street light control
methods is introduced.   

     At present,
street lamps are controlled manually in most of the cities. Generally street
lights are switched ON for whole night and, during the day, they are switched
OFF. But during the night time, street lights are not necessary if there is no
traffic. We are proposing to implemented smart street lightening system in
which block of street lights turns ON after detection of vehicle and as soon as
the vehicle moves ahead the trailing lights automatically switches OFF. Now a
days, the street lights are working on electricity.   Saving of this energy is very important
factor these days as energy resources are getting reduced day by day. Instead
of using electricity we are introducing solar energy as a main source.

    The main
objective of our project is to provide a better solution to minimize the
electrical wastage in operating street lights. 
In this era of automation humans are restless and are not in a position
to regulate the manual operations in any field. A rapid advancement in embedded
systems has paved path for the design and development of microcontroller based
automatic control systems.

    Our project
presents an automatic street light controller using light dependent
resistor(LDR).By using this system manual works are removed. The street lights
are automatically switched ON when the sunlight goes below the visible region
of our eyes and switches OFF the streetlight when ample amount of sunlight is
available, it means LDR resistance is inversely proportional to light falling
on it. The component used for light sensing is a Light Dependent Resistor. When
the light falls on the LDR it sends the commands to the control circuit that it
should be in the OFF state and the streetlight turns OFF.

    This project
exploits the working of a transistor in saturation region and cut-off region to
switch ON and switch OFF the lights at appropriate time with the help of an
electromagnetically operated switch .This system operates in accordance with
the varying sunlight, whenever there is sufficient light falling on the LDR, it
exhibits high resistance and acts as an insulator and in darkness the LDR
behaves as low resistance path and allows the flow of electricity.

    This
proposed system provides a solution for energy saving. This is achieved by
sensing an approaching vehicle and then switches ON a block of street lights
ahead of the vehicle. As the vehicle passes by, the trailing  lights 
gets dimmed automatically. Thus , we save lot of energy.

 

                                                                                                                                                             
II.           
RELATED WORKS

 

    Lighting can account for 10-38% of the total energy bill in typical
cities worldwide. Street lighting is a particularly critical concern for public
authorities in developing countries because of its strategic importance for
economic and social stability. Inefficient lighting wastes significant
financial resources each year, and poor lighting creates unsafe conditions.
Energy efficient technologies and design can cut street lighting costs
dramatically (often by 25-60%). The main consideration in the present field
technologies are Automation, Power consumption and cost effectiveness.
Automation is intended to reduce man power with the help of intelligent
systems. Power saving is the main consideration forever as the sources of the
power are getting diminished due to various reasons. The busy lifestyle of
humans has led to untimely switching of street lights. As a result lot of power
is being wasted. The advanced development in embedded system has set a platform
for designing energy efficient systems. Electrical Power wastage can be reduced
by using two light dependent resistors as light sensing devices or light
sensors to indicate day or night time. A photoelectric sensor has been used to
detect the movement of humans and vehicles on the streets. The supply to the
control unit and to light the street light is being achieved by the
implementation of solar panels.

    Overview of
the previous work done related to the vehicle movement using street light
detection by different authors is explained in the literature survey. The
strategic implementation of the different communication technologies and the
methodology used in system is discussed briefly.

    “The Smart Street Light System based on
Image Processing” 1 implemented by
Veena P C, Paulsy Tharakan, Hima Haridas, Ramya K, Riya Joju, Ms. Jyothis T S
in 2016 consists of LED Lamps, Raspberry Pi, Sensors, LDR, OLFC. The Smart
Street Light System based on Image Processing, is a hardware application
which  takes video as input and   detect movement of vehicles and human beings
to switch ON only a chunk of street lights ahead of it (vehicle & human),
and to switch OFF the trailing lights to save energy . The Object Level Frame
comparison methodology is used to detect the vehicles and humans. Sensors are also
included in this system to detect whether the temperature and gas are exceeding
in the particular area and send a SMS immediately to the corresponding
department via a GSM module. Raspberry Pi is used as the platform as it enables
the number of modules to be connected to it through the various ports. A camera
connected to the Raspberry Pi is the element through which input image is
taken. The LDR is used to measure the intensity of light. The merits of this
system are power reduction and this system is used to save energy and demerits
are high initial cost and no backup plan. Because of these two demerits this
system is not much efficient 1.

    “An
Intelligent System for Monitoring and Controlling of Street Light using GSM
Technology” 2 implemented by Ms.
Swati Rajesh Parekar, Prof. Manoj M. Dongre in 2015, consists of Atmega
microcontroller, GSM, LED, Raspberry Pi, 
Sensors, Street Light. The system is designed such a way that lights
sensors (LDR), RTC and Presence sensor placed in all street lights circuit will
turn ON and OFF lamps automatically. When the lights are turn ON every light
pole having current sensor informs about fault to the centralized system by
using GSM module attached to circuit via Short Message Service (SMS). The
information through SMS is received at Base station with Raspberry Pi (a
compute module), analyzes the data and the status of street lamp is visualized
with help of Graphical User Interface (GUI). This makes the fault detection and
maintenance of system easy than the conventional system. System makes the most
efficient use of the energy received from the sun to power street lights. The
merits of this system are use of solar panels and this system is flexible
according to need of user and demerit of this system is that this system is
very expensive. Because of this the system is not useful in the rural areas
where there is low budget. The rural area lighting is the main application of
our project and this system does not applicable there 2.

    “Design and implementation of Traffic Flow
based Street Light Control System with effective utilization of solar energy” 3
implemented by M.Abhishek , Syed ajram shah, K.Chetan, K.Arun kumar used, 8052
series microcontroller, LDR, Photoelectric Sensor, Street Lights in Design and implementation
of Traffic Flow based Street Light Control System with effective utilization of
solar energy. In this system renewable source of energy i.e., solar power is
used for street lighting. Apart from this, normal bulbs are replaced in street
lighting with LEDs due to which the power consumption in reduced by 3 times.
And also, IR sensors are used to detect the movement of object to activate the
lighting a few meters before the object is about to reach the lighting area.
Here, the IR sensors are deactivated after a timing delay of 30seconds and
similarly remaining sensors are activated and deactivated after 30seconds. The
process is controlled by 8052 series microcontroller. The merits of this system
are power reduction and this system is used to save energy and demerits are
high initial cost and no backup plan. Because of these two demerits this system
is not much efficient. Because of no backup plan we cannot relia on the system
totally. Because of this we have to search for other options 3. 

    “Internet
of Things Based Intelligent Street Lighting System for Smart City” 4
implemented by  Parkash, Prabu V, Dandu
Rajendra in 2016. This system is implemented with smart embedded system which
controls the street lights based on detection of vehicles or any other
obstacles on the street .Whenever the obstacle is detected on the street within
the specified time the light will get automatically ON/OFF according to the
obstacle detection and the same information can be accessed through internet.
The system architecture of the intelligent street light system consists of IR
sensors, LDR, PIC16F877A microcontroller, Relay, UART and Wi-Fi Module. LDRs
are light dependent devices whose resistance decreases when light falls on them
and increases in the dark. When a light dependent resistor is kept in dark, its
resistance is very high. The vehicle which passes by the street light is
detected by IR sensor (IR transmitter and IR receiver couple). Relays are used
as a switch to switch on/off the street light bulb. A UART (Universal
Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter) is the microchip with programming that
controls a computer’s interface to its attached street light system. The real
time information of the street light (ON/OFF Status) can be accessed from
anytime, anywhere through internet.  The
merit of this system is reduction of manpower, automatic switching of street
lights, reduction in CO?
emission, Reduction of light pollution, wireless communication, energy saving
and demerits are initial cost and maintenance is high. Because of these
two demerits this system is not much efficient. And it is not used in such
areas where there is less budget to implement smart street lighting project
4.

   “Smart street lighting system based on
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)” 5 
implemented by Dr. D. V. Pushpa Latha, Dr. K.R.Sudha, Swati Devabhaktuni
in 2014 describe about and input sensing devices. In this paper, an approach
for controlling Street Lighting system using millennium 3 PLC is proposed. The
proposed controller gives fast, reliable, and power efficient street lamp
switching based on seasonal variations. The simulated results are also verified
experimentally by using a Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) which senses the
light. LDR is used as the replacement for the seasonal variation. This paper
confirms that the proposed PLC based street lighting control system has great
potential to revolutionize street lighting which in turn saves large amount of
power.But PLC’s are used for automation of industrial electro-mechanical
processes which does not help in our proposed system 5.

 

III.SYSTEM MODEL AND COMPONENTS

 

    This
proposed system provides a solution for energy saving. This is achieved by
sensing an approaching vehicle and then switches ON a block of street lights
ahead of the vehicle. As the vehicle passes by, the trailing light gets dimmed
automatically. Thus, we save a lot of energy. So when there are no vehicles on
the highway, then intensity of light becomes low.

    This system
was developed using Raspberry Pi along with various sensors sensing the
vehicle. LDR is used to automatically switch ON the street lights when the
sunlight goes below the visible region of our eyes and switches OFF the
streetlight when some amount of sunlight is available. LDR is used to identify
the difference between day and night. This system should have to turn ON at
night time and remains OFF at day time and this is achieved with the help of
LDR. To sense the vehicle IR sensors are used. Pair of IR transmitter and
receiver situated on both sides of the road detects vehicles and give command
to control unit to turn ON/OFF block of street light.  When vehicle or any other object is sensed by
IR sensor, then the street lights will glow. And if vehicle or any other object
is not detected by IR sensor, then the street lights should remain in OFF
state. The control unit used here is Raspberry Pi.

    The energy
supply required for control unit and street lights is given from the renewable
source, Sun. The solar energy is taken with help of solar panel and stored in a
battery. The energy stored in battery is in the form of AC but Raspberry Pi
works only on DC. So we have to ADC operation in our system. Raspberry Pi
cannot drive LEDs directly, so we require the MOSFET drive to drive LED.

    The main power supply is used as a backup
plan when solar panels are not working properly or when there is insufficient
solar energy. We want +5V DC supply in our system to drive Raspberry Pi.  The supply from mains is 230V, 50Hz. To
convert this into +5V DC supply we are using transformer, rectifier, filter.

   Here in the
proposed system we are adding RFID card on the car and RFID reader on the pole.
With the help of RFID card and reader we can read whole information of car i.e.
its unique plate no. and information of car owner and we will display this
information on LCD.

 

 

Fig 1: Block Diagram of Vehicle Movement
using Street Light Detection

 

 

IV.IMPLIMENTATION

 

Flow of the implemented system is explained with
the help of following flowcharts. Fig. 2 shows the flowchart for checking day
and night condition using LDR. Flowchart for vehicle detection is shown in Fig
3.

     First
initialize all the devices. After the initialization is done, check day and
night condition using LDR. As we know the LDR is Light Dependent Resistor, it
works on the internal resistance. At day time internal resistance is high and
at night time internal resistance is low. When resistance is low, make street
lighting system ON. When resistance is high make street lighting system OFF. 

   After
detection of vehicle by IR sensor, IR sensor will send signal to Raspberry pi
to turn ON street light. When the vehicle is not detected by IR sensor, the
street light will remains OFF.

 

 

Fig 2: Flowchart for checking day and night
condition using LDR

 

 

 

Fig 3: Flowchart for vehicle detection

 

 

VI. ANALYSIS

 

In table 1, it shows an analysis and comparison about
current systems.

 

Table 1: Analysis of recently proposed
system

 

Title of Paper

 Components Used

 Merits

 Demerits

 Smart Street
Light System based on Image Processing

  LED Lamps, Raspberry pi, sensors, LDR,
OLFC .

 Power reduction , Used to save energy

 High initial cost ,No backup plan.

 An Intelligent
System for Monitoring and Controlling of Street Light using GSM Technology

 At mega , GSM, LED,  Raspberry Pi,  Sensors, Street Light.

 Use of solar panels, Flexible according to
need of user.

 Expensive.

 Design and
implementation of Traffic Flow based Street Light Control System with
effective utilization of solar energy

 Microcontroller ,LDR, Photoelectric sensor.

 Automatic ON/OFF mechanism of street
lights.

Because of one microcontroller the
controllability and operation of street lighting is difficult.

 Internet
of Things Based Intelligent Street Lighting System for Smart City

 PIC Microcontroller, IR Sensor, Current
Sensor, LDR, Intel Galileo Gen2.

 Reduction of manpower.

 Initial cost and maintenance is high .

 

 

VII. RESULTS AND
DISCUSSION

 

In proposed system IR sensor will detect the movement
of vehicle. When vehicle is detected by IR sensor, it will inform to control
unit i.e. Raspberry Pi about the presence of vehicle. Then Raspberry Pi will
control the switching operation of street light. To turn ON the system we have
to use LDR. LDR will check intensity of light. According to light intensity (if
it is low, then system will turn ON and if intensity is high system remains
OFF). The energy provided to whole system is solar energy with the help of
solar panels and this energy is stored in batteries. Whenever there is absence
of solar energy or failure of solar supply to the system, the main switch will give energy to whole system.

   

 

Fig 4: Expected result

 

    As shown in
above Fig 4, the street lights should glow after detecting vehicle or other
object. The RFID Reader should read information from RFID card which is
situated on vehicle correctly. It should be displayed on LCD display.
Ultrasonic sensor should work properly to detect any obstacle in the path.

 

VIII.
CONCLUSION

The project has been studied and designed using
raspberry pi. This work includes the energy saving system. The main benefit of
the present system is power saving. This initiative will help the government to
save this energy and meet the domestic and industrial needs. In addition to
energy consumption, another advantage it provides less maintenance cost. This
project is cost effective, practical, and the safest way to save energy. It
clearly tackles the two problems that world is facing today, saving of energy
and also disposal of incandescent lamps, very efficiently. According to
statistical data we can save more electrical energy that is now consumed by the
highways. We have implemented a prototype of this system. The proposed system
is especially appropriate for street lighting in remote urban and rural areas
where the traffic is low at times. Independence of the power network permits to
implement it in remote areas where the classical systems are prohibitively
expensive. The system is versatile, extendable and totally adjustable to user
need.

 

REFERENCES

 

1    
Veena
P C, Paulsy Tharakan , Hima Haridas, Ramya K , Riya Joju, Ms. Jyothis T S,”Smart
Street Light System based on Image Processing,” 2016 International Conference on Circuit, Power and
Computing Technologies ICCPCT

 

2    
Ms.
Swati Rajesh Parekar , Prof. Manoj M. Dongre, “An Intelligent System for Monitoring and Controlling of
Street Light using GSM Technology,” 2015 International Conference on Information Processing (ICIP)
Vishwakarma Institute of Technology.
Dec 16-19,2015

 

3     M.Abhishek ,
Syed ajram shah, K.Chetan, K.Arun kumar,”Design and implementation of
Traffic Flow based Street Light Control System with effective utilization of
solar energy,” International Journal of Science Engineering and Advance
Technology, IJSEAT, Vol 3, Issue 9 ISSN 2321-6905 September-2015

 

4     Parkash, Prabu
V, Dandu Rajendra ,”Internet of Things Based Intelligent Street Lighting
System for Smart City,” International Journal of Innovative Research in Science,
Engineering and Technology (An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization) Vol.
5, Issue 5, May 2016

 

5     Dr. D.V.Pushpa
Latha, Dr. K.R.Sudha, Swati Devabhaktuni, “PLC
based Smart S Street Lighting
Control”, I.J.Intelligent System and Applications, 2014, 01, 64-72.

 

6     Raspberry Pi
Foundation, UK registered charity 1129409

 

7    
Cellan
Jones, Rory (5thMay 2011), Peter (3rdJune 2011), Bush, Steve (25thMay 2011), “Dongle computer solve the programming on a
TV”

 

8    
Akula
Rahul, K.Haripriya, E.Sneha, “Smart
Energy Management System Based on Zigbee
Technology”, 11thMarch 2015.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                  

 

 

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