Abstract Propolis is aproduct from the honeybee from plants, particularly from flowers and leaf buds. Propolisexerts numerous pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, antibacterial,anticancer, antifungal, antiinflammatory, antiviral etc. In thefood industry, the use of microencapsulation to protect, isolate or control therelease of given substances is of growing interest. Spray drying is one of manystandard methods to encapsulate food ingredients. Microcapsuleswere produced by a spray-drying technique using of k–carrageenan gum arabic andmaltodextrin as the binding materials. In this work, the effects ofspray-drying on the encapsulation yield, particle size and total phenoliccontent of the bioactive components of propolis were determined fordifferent concentration between carrier agent and propolis at volume ratio 1:0,51:1, 1:1,5,1.
The SEM results also showed that the microcapsuleshad a regular spherical shape with the size 1 µm. The spray-dried propolis extractshowed high total phenolic content 67,78 mg(GAE)/g extract at ratio 1:2, andthe highest yield at concentration ratio between carrier agent and propolis 1:0,5 are 64,7 %. IntroductionThere has been an increased interest in dried extracts based on naturalproducts including propolis. 1. Propolis isa resin with variable colour and consistency, and it is collected by bees fromdifferent parts of plants, such as flower buds and resin exudates Propolispresents a strong and characteristic smell due to its volatile phenolic acidfraction, strong adhesive properties and complex chemistry (55% of resins andbalsams, 30% of wax, 10% of volatile oils and around 5% of pollen), as well asmechanical impurities 2Dhyeta1 . The process allowedobtaining propolis in the powder form with preserved antioxidant activity. Powder productalso increased stability during storageat room temperature, had low hygroscopicity and was highly dispersible in coldwater.
Drying process plays an important role in the preservationof agricultural drying also for better preservation, easier handling, and areduced bulk volume for transportation 3. The spray-drying process is used inthe food industry to produce dry powders, The preparation of instant foodpowders, such as milk, juices and coffee, needs a further step of agglomerationafter spray drying. Spray drying operation is used to get larger particles(from 50–80 µm to250–500 µm) with a narrower size distribution inorder to improve flow ability; and to modify particle structure (porosity) tobtain good instant properties (wettability,dispersability and solubility) Inmicroencapsulation by spray drying, a target compound is combined with one ormore ‘wall’ materials to form an emulsion or dispersion4.Spray drying are methods for encapsulating foodingredients such as vitamins, flavours, starter cultures carotenoids, fats andoils 5. Encapsulation may be definedas a process to entrap one substance within another Substance 1. It can be successfully applied to entrap naturalcompounds, like essential oils or vegetalable extracts containing antioxidant polyphenols6. Microencapsulation is technique for preserving and facilitating the use ofsensitive ingredients.
In microencapsulation a core material is surrounded orembedded in a protective layer of differing composition. Basically a liquid is transformed into a powder in themicroencapsulation process microencapsulation can mask undesirable flavors orodors, control the release rate and location of a compound, and impact bioavailabilityof the encapsulated material. Microcapsules can have a variety of structuraltypes – core shell, multi core, single wall, multi wall, continuous matrix. Thestructural type depends on the processing method and materials involved inpreparation. In this research we used maltodextrin, gum arabic andcarragenan as wall material for encapsulated propolis Material and methods Material Bottled samples Glasses Beker, Glomax, HomogenizerUltra turrax, Analytic, Mini spray dryer butchi, micro pipette (Rainin),microplate, Oven, 2ml cup sample, spatula, yellow tip. The materials used are Aquades,Ethanol 96%, Gum Arab, Kappa Carrageenan, Maltodextrin, and Propolis. Themicroencapsulation method used is spray drying.
The microcapsule formulationconsists of Propolis Solution, Maltodextrin, Gum Arab, and Carrageenan. Stagesof research conducted is the determination of the yield of propolis. Preparation and spray drying The coating materialmaltodextrin and Arabic gum were prepared as described by 7,8 with modification. Making emulsion,microencapsulation process and microcapsule analysis. Determination Thepropolis rendement was carried out bydrying propolis in an oven at 90 ° C until only the remaining propolis solids and then weighed a coating matrixcomprising 1 g of maltodextrin, 1 g of Carrageenan and 0.2 gr Gum Arabic mixedwith 200 ml aquades using and then Homogenizer using Ultra Turrax. With Stirring speed are 16000 rpm for 2 minutes.
Propolissolution is made by mixing pure propolis with ethanol with a ratio 1: 4. Thepropolis solution was mixed on an emulsion of 30 ml, 60 ml, 90 ml, and 120 mlvolumes using Homogenizer Ultra Turrax with stirring speed of 16000 rpm for 2min. The emulsion then enter spraydryer. The sample is inserted into a glass beaker. The operating conditions ofthe equipment are 20% pump pressure, nitrogen gas pressure temperature 150oC.
Total PhenolicContent (TPC) Total phenolics(TPC) of the samples were determined spectrophotometrically by theFolin-Ciocalteu reagent according to the method of 9. Results and Discussion Kappa carrageenan is known to be a good choice as a coating materialbecause of its pseudoplastic behaviour so it is possible to act as a plasticizer, made themicro encapsulate round and smooth formation at the microencapsulation andincrease the adhesion force between walls and core materials. In addition,kappa carrageenan has the desired properties as emulsifier, safe to eat andbiodegradation 10 Also gum arab added in emulsion because its highsolubility, the main characteristic of gum arab is is a texture-forming,film-forming, fastener and emulsifier which is good with the presence ofprotein components in gum arab. Gum arab can retain flavor from dried foods bymethod spray drying, because this gum can form a protective layer of theprocess of decomposition change 11. Even so gum arab has weaknesses the price is quite expensive and limitedavailability as well its oxidation resistance is low. Usually the use ofgum arab mixed with dextrin such as maltodextrin. Maltodextrin (C6H12O5) nH2O is defined as a starch hydrolyzate product (an unsanitarysaccharide polymer) with an average chain length of 5-10 units / glucosemolecule. maltodextrin is composed of glucose units, and is not effective forstabilizing oil or flavor in solution viscosity.
Therefore, maltodextrin is usuallycombined with the ingredients such as gum arab or other modified starch forstability purposes 12. Gum arab emulsions can produce micro capsules that have high retention but low oxidationresistance. Therefore the use of gum arab can combined with maltodextrins thathave high oxidationresistance Maltodextrin has good solubility in water and lowviscosity values even at high concentrations. These properties makemaltodextrin useful for coating material. On the other hand, maltodextrins aredeficient in terms of emulsification property and surface-active features13 the addition of carrier agent material in the microencapsulation process leads to anincrease in total propolis solids prior to microencapsulation. The totalcontent of solids affects the duration of the drying process and the resultingyield. Tabel 1.
Viscosity ofemulsion Volume propolis in total volume of emulsion (ml) Viscosity of emulsion (cp)Dhyeta2 30 31.40 60 29.20 90 27.30 120 20.50 Dhyeta3 Tabel 1. Canbe have seen that volume ofpropolis affected in viscosity of emulsion microenkapsulat with maltodextrin as carrier agent combined with kappa carrageenan can increase therendement of micro encapsulation powder due to high molecular weight of carrageenan that isabove 100 kDa or ranged between 100-800 thousand kDa 14,10 and the nature of kappa karagenan which is the fractioncapable of forming gel in water andincreasing the viscosity of the solution, so that the total dissolved solids become increasedwhich results in a higher yield compared to the ratio of other coatingcombinations therefore required viscosity test. In addition, viscosity testingof the emulsion is important because the spray dryer used has a specificationof emulsion viscosity should be carried 122 cp. The excessivelyhigh viscosity of the solution can cause damage to the nozzle and complicatethe process of the atomizer so that it can become unstable in the flow withinthe spray drying resulting in many microencapsulated powders attached to thechamber spray dryer tube.
Yield of the spray drying process, which is defined asthe ratio of powder mass collected to the mass of total solids in the feed,19is an important indicator for industrial success. Residue formation duringspray drying indicates poor process performance and is mainly caused bystickiness of the product a yield value higher than 50% as a successful dryingprocess 15, from Table 2Dhyeta4 we could have seen that higherviskosity will increased the yield of microcapsul due to higher carrier agentconcentration that effected the increased viscosity but also in 10 yield increased along with the addition of coating materials with various ratios combination, from Figure 2 we could have seensampel with ratio propolis and carrier agent 2:1 muchmore agglomerated also supported with figure 3 Scanning electron of particles than other variation due to theyield of spray drying less then 50% if the yield than 50% caused stickness tothe product from Tabel 1 we could seen the yieldlessDhyeta5 than 50 %. Dhyeta1This introduction is mainly about spray drying, change to propolis Dhyeta2what viscocity ? Dhyeta3in total volume ? Dhyeta4Table 2.