we all know that the computer industry advanced so much and it has more
complexities, Operating System responsibilities has increased, and give
challenge to the operating system developers to build a secure operating
system. In this paper we will see operating system security issues computer
industry has faced in desktop and mobile area. And we are proposing a general
idea to improve all operating systems for security.
The information and communications technology (ICT) industry has evolved
greatly over the last half
century. The technology is ubiquitous and increasingly integral to almost every
facet of modern society. ICT devices
and components are generally interdependent, and disruption of one
may affect many others. In our country
Yearly 65 million people travel from Pakistan Railways. It is one of the most
popular way of traveling from one destination to another. According to a survey
20 to 25 percent people commence the crime of travelling without ticket in
major express trains. To increase in frequency and
severity over the next several years. The
act of protecting systems and their contents has come to be known as cybersecurity.
When we ask about the short distance travelling it would be
increased in very high ratio about 60%. In Pakistan where the investment
chances are too low and such a great network is working under miserable
conditions it is the point of dissatisfaction. In the scenario of high security
risk especially in Pakistan it is very dangerous that a person is travelling
without proper authentication. In many cases it seems to be investigated that
the terrorists and criminals used railways for transportation.
It is also being observed that accept some major stations there is no such
system that can scrutinize the luggage. The researcher personally observed that
except some major stations no station has an x-ray machine to scrutinize the
luggage. Most cyberattacks have limited
impacts, but a successful attack on some components of critical infrastructure (CI) most of which is held by the
private sector could have significant effects on national security, the economy, and the livelihood
and safety of individual citizens. Reducing such risks usually involves removing threat sources,
addressing vulnerabilities, and lessening impacts. The federal role in cybersecurity involves
both securing federal systems and assisting in protecting nonfederal systems.
More than 50 statutes address various aspects of
cybersecurity. In rush hours this becomes more tricky and
difficult to find any unwanted thing.
ticketing system of Pakistan Railways seems to be very faulty. In Railways we
are using 3 Different types of ticketing system.
These different systems create many
confusions and problems in the minds of passengers as well as the
administration. Due to this confusion many people took the benefits which
ultimately cause heavy loss to the organization.
of the railway stations of Pakistan railways are equipped with two different
systems one is the old fashioned Edmondson Ticketing system used hard paper
tickets as open tickets in which no seat is allotted to person but he is
authorized to travel, and the other one is new computerized system using paper
tickets to provide the reservations in this system
Those recent legislative and executive-branch actions
are largely designed to address several
well-established needs in cybersecurity. However,
those needs exist in the context of difficult long-term challenges relating to design, incentives,
consensus, and environment. Legislation and executive actions in the 114th and future Congresses
could have significant impacts on those
consist of an mobile application by which you can book your ticket and you will
receive a message which consist of your reservation details and your identity
this message is considered as a ticket.
security is defined by three attributes, Confidentially, Integrity, Availability.
Confidentially is prevention of unauthorized disclosure of information.
Integrity is prevention of unauthorized modification of information, and
Availability is the prevention of unauthorized
withholding of information or resources. Operating system can provide sandbox,
hashing password to protect
against threats. In this paper some former researches techniques are used and
we are going to explore more
techniques and suggest the ideas for making a better security for Operating
Concept of Cybersecurity
Over the past several years, experts
and policymakers have expressed increasing concerns about protecting ICT
systems from cyberattacks deliberate
attempts by unauthorized persons to access
ICT systems, usually with the goal of theft, disruption, damage, or other
unlawful actions. Many experts expect the number and severity of cyberattacks to
increase over the next several years. The act of protecting ICT systems and
their contents has come to be known as cybersecurity.
A broad and arguably somewhat fuzzy concept, cybersecurity can be a useful term
but tends to defy
precise definition. It usually refers to one or more of three things:
A set of activities and other measures intended
to protect from attack, disruption, or other threats computers, computer
networks, related hardware and devices software and the information they
contain and communicate,
including software and data, as well as other elements of cyberspace. The state
or quality of being protected from such threats. The broad field of endeavor
aimed at implementing and improving those Activities and quality. It is related
to but not generally regarded as identical to the concept of information
security, which is defined in federal law (44 U.S.C. §3552(b)(3)) as
protecting information and information systems from unauthorized access, use,
disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction in order to provide-
(A) integrity, which means guarding against improper information modification
or destruction, and includes ensuring information nonrepudiation and
(B) confidentiality, which means preserving authorized restrictions on access
and disclosure, including means for protecting personal privacy and proprietary
(C) availability, which means ensuring timely and reliable access to and use of
Cybersecurity is also sometimes conflated inappropriately in public discussion
concepts such as privacy, information sharing, intelligence gathering, and
surveillance. Privacy is associated with the ability of an individual person to
control access by others to information about that person.