ABSTRACTAswe all know that the computer industry advanced so much and it has morecomplexities, Operating System responsibilities has increased, and givechallenge to the operating system developers to build a secure operatingsystem. In this paper we will see operating system security issues computerindustry has faced in desktop and mobile area. And we are proposing a generalidea to improve all operating systems for security.SummaryThe information and communications technology (ICT) industry has evolvedgreatly over the last halfcentury. The technology is ubiquitous and increasingly integral to almost everyfacet of modern society.
ICT devicesand components are generally interdependent, and disruption of onemay affect many others. In our countryYearly 65 million people travel from Pakistan Railways. It is one of the mostpopular way of traveling from one destination to another. According to a survey20 to 25 percent people commence the crime of travelling without ticket inmajor express trains. To increase in frequency andseverity over the next several years.
Theact of protecting systems and their contents has come to be known as cybersecurity.When we ask about the short distance travelling it would beincreased in very high ratio about 60%. In Pakistan where the investmentchances are too low and such a great network is working under miserableconditions it is the point of dissatisfaction. In the scenario of high securityrisk especially in Pakistan it is very dangerous that a person is travellingwithout proper authentication.
In many cases it seems to be investigated thatthe terrorists and criminals used railways for transportation.It is also being observed that accept some major stations there is no suchsystem that can scrutinize the luggage. The researcher personally observed thatexcept some major stations no station has an x-ray machine to scrutinize theluggage. Most cyberattacks have limitedimpacts, but a successful attack on some components of critical infrastructure (CI) most of which is held by theprivate sector could have significant effects on national security, the economy, and the livelihoodand safety of individual citizens. Reducing such risks usually involves removing threat sources,addressing vulnerabilities, and lessening impacts. The federal role in cybersecurity involvesboth securing federal systems and assisting in protecting nonfederal systems. More than 50 statutes address various aspects ofcybersecurity.
In rush hours this becomes more tricky anddifficult to find any unwanted thing.Theticketing system of Pakistan Railways seems to be very faulty. In Railways weare using 3 Different types of ticketing system.ü OpenTicketsü PaperReservationü OnlineReservationThese different systems create manyconfusions and problems in the minds of passengers as well as theadministration. Due to this confusion many people took the benefits whichultimately cause heavy loss to the organization.
Allof the railway stations of Pakistan railways are equipped with two differentsystems one is the old fashioned Edmondson Ticketing system used hard papertickets as open tickets in which no seat is allotted to person but he isauthorized to travel, and the other one is new computerized system using papertickets to provide the reservations in this systemThose recent legislative and executive-branch actionsare largely designed to address severalwell-established needs in cybersecurity. However,those needs exist in the context of difficult long-term challenges relating to design, incentives,consensus, and environment. Legislation and executive actions in the 114th and future Congressescould have significant impacts on thosechallenges.SECURITYItconsist of an mobile application by which you can book your ticket and you willreceive a message which consist of your reservation details and your identitythis message is considered as a ticket. Computersecurity is defined by three attributes, Confidentially, Integrity, Availability.Confidentially is prevention of unauthorized disclosure of information.Integrity is prevention of unauthorized modification of information, andAvailability is the prevention of unauthorizedwithholding of information or resources. Operating system can provide sandbox,hashing password to protectagainst threats.
In this paper some former researches techniques are used andwe are going to explore moretechniques and suggest the ideas for making a better security for OperatingSystem.TheConcept of CybersecurityOver the past several years, expertsand policymakers have expressed increasing concerns about protecting ICTsystems from cyberattacks deliberateattempts by unauthorized persons to accessICT systems, usually with the goal of theft, disruption, damage, or otherunlawful actions. Many experts expect the number and severity of cyberattacks toincrease over the next several years.
The act of protecting ICT systems andtheir contents has come to be known as cybersecurity.A broad and arguably somewhat fuzzy concept, cybersecurity can be a useful termbut tends to defyprecise definition. It usually refers to one or more of three things:A set of activities and other measures intendedto protect from attack, disruption, or other threats computers, computernetworks, related hardware and devices software and the information theycontain and communicate,including software and data, as well as other elements of cyberspace. The stateor quality of being protected from such threats. The broad field of endeavoraimed at implementing and improving those Activities and quality.
It is relatedto but not generally regarded as identical to the concept of informationsecurity, which is defined in federal law (44 U.S.C.
§3552(b)(3)) asprotecting information and information systems from unauthorized access, use,disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction in order to provide-(A) integrity, which means guarding against improper information modificationor destruction, and includes ensuring information nonrepudiation andauthenticity;(B) confidentiality, which means preserving authorized restrictions on accessand disclosure, including means for protecting personal privacy and proprietaryinformation(C) availability, which means ensuring timely and reliable access to and use ofinformation.Cybersecurity is also sometimes conflated inappropriately in public discussionwith otherconcepts such as privacy, information sharing, intelligence gathering, andsurveillance. Privacy is associated with the ability of an individual person tocontrol access by others to information about that person.