The competition for sportswear market is
relatively high at the present. Most of the companies in sportswear and apparel
industry have started to implement new marketing strategies to attract new
customers while retaining the existing customers. Brand image acts a major role
when attracting new customers by influencing their perceptions and buying
behaviour. In this study the possibility of the brand image to influence the
buying decision of the consumers will be investigated. The personality,
self-esteem and many other factors affect the buying decision and it is
difficult to decide what will affect for a particular product or company
without having a proper research or investigation. Therefore this study is can
be considered as an important research to be carried out so that the relevant
factors affecting buying decisions of sportswear companies will be identified
in the research

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image is considered one of the main marketing tools to most of business
organizations.  Because of the brand
image is a medium through which people associate with businesses. Also the
brand image provides a business an identity to sustain in the industry.
Therefore this research will be very useful to organizations especially
sportswear organizations such as Nike and Adidas to understand the importance
of brand identity to influence the consumer decisions. Further in this research
some strategies will be suggested under the recommendation which can be used to
improve the brand image so that it will influence the consumer buying
behaviour. Therefore this research will be very important to understand the
effectiveness of current branding strategy and new strategies to improve brand
image. Also this research will be helpful to understand how business
organisations maintain their brand image and the impacts of brand image on
consumer decisions. And also this research objectives are:

To identify and evaluate factors influencing brand loyalty in
sportswear company

To identify and evaluate relationship between price and brand loyalty

To identify and evaluate relationship between product quality and brand

To identify and evaluate relationship between brand image and brand

To identify and evaluate relationship between promotion and brand


To identify and evaluate relationship between service quality and brand

To identify and evaluate relationship between store environment and
brand loyalty



Chapter 1


Brand is important for any
company and establishing and maintaining the proper position in the minds of
customers is one of the important goals of markers. Customers buy brand not
goods, in other words, brand is something that customer buys and goods is
something that is produced in the factory. Goods can be imitated by rivals but
brand is unique.


Brand awareness:

Brand awareness means the
ability of a consumer can recognize and recall a brand in different situations.
Brand awareness consists of brand recall and
brand recognition. Brand recall means when consumers see a product category,
they can recall a brand name exactly, and brand recognition means consumers has
ability to identify a brand when there is a brand cue. That is, consumers can tell a brand
correctly if they ever saw or heard it. Brand awareness can be distinguished
from depth and width. Depth means how to make consumers to recall or identify
brand easily, and width expresses infers when consumers purchase a product, a brand
name will come to their minds at once. If a product owns brand depth and brand
width at the same time, consumers will think of a specific brand when they want
to buy a product. That is, the product has higher brand awareness. Moreover,
brand name is the most important element in brand awareness. Brand awareness will affect purchase decision through brand association,
and when a product owns a positive brand image, it will help in marketing


The Journal of International Management Studies, Volume 4, Number 1,
February, 2009

Brand Loyalty

Brand loyalty is the tendency
of consumers to continuously purchase one brand’s products over another.
Consumer behavior patterns demonstrate that consumers will continue to buy
products from a company that has fostered a trusting relationship. Loyalty is
extremely beneficial to businesses as it leads to repeat purchases by
consumers, higher revenues, and customer referrals .brand loyalty is a function
of attitude as well as behavior. A customer’s preference to purchase a
particular brand within available alternative product category is defined
as brand loyalty. It occurs when customers understand that
at the right price the brand proposes the right level of quality
or image, product features. This idea is the fundamental of new purchasing
habits. Primarily, a trial product of the brand will be purchased by
customers after that when the purchase is satisfactory to the customer, they
form habits to repurchase that brand continuously as the product seems
safe and familiar


Brand loyalty importance:             

Having a loyal customer base
can help a business push past its competitors and give it the competitive
advantage it needs to succeed in the marketplace .Companies with strong brand
loyalty will see its customers repeatedly buy its products or services,
regardless of changes in price or convenience. Frequent purchasers of one
company’s product are less likely to be swayed by the marketing messages of
competitors, thus increasing the chances that those customers will continue to
conduct business with the that company .In addition to having higher sales than
those without brand loyalty, companies that have successfully established a
loyal following can enjoy a growing customer base as well. Loyal customers have
the potential to turn into open advocates and brand ambassadors for a company.
Satisfaction with a business will drive them to spread brand awareness and
refer new customers, effectively providing a company with costless advertising
.A great method for nurturing brand loyalty is having a rewards program. Many
companies entice customers to make a purchase by offering points or a similar
object to be redeemed for prizes and awards.


Brand loyalty in sportswear

Some customers will get more
loyal to any specific brand. Even if the products of various brands are same,
they will also continue choosing products from a certain brand. These
happenings are more common in case of sportswear industry. If two sportswear
stores serve the same sportswear, people will get more loyal to any of the
brands due to the connection made between them and the brand. On the other
hand, factors leading towards durability as well as stability of the
relationship between consumers and the brand/s over time period. Investigating the
six factors lead towards maintaining a strong brand relationship. The six
factors are:


Passion and love



Brand partner quality 





Brand building:

Building a strong brand is
the goal of many organizations. Building a strong brand with significant equity
is seen as providing a host of possible benefits to a firm, including greater
customer loyalty and less vulnerability to competitive marketing actions and
marketing crises, larger margins as well as more favorable customer response to
price increases and decreases, grater trade or intermediary cooperation and
support, increased marketing communication effectiveness, and licensing and
brand-extension opportunities.


paper, report no 01-107,2001 writer: kevin lane keller


The four steps of brand

Building a strong brand,
according to the customer-based brand equity model, can be thought of in terms
of a sequence of steps, in which each step is contingent upon the successful
completion of the previous step. All steps involve accomplishing certain
objectives with customers,

To ensure identification of the brand with the customer and association
of the brand in customers’ minds with specific product class or customer need

To firmly establish the brand meaning in the minds of the customers by
strategically linking a host of tangible and intangible brand associations

To elicit the proper customer responses to this brand identity and
brand meaning

To convert brand response to create an intense, active loyalty
relationship between customer and the brand.


These four steps represent a
set of fundamental questions that customers invariably ask about brands,
implicitly if not explicitly:

Who are you? (Brand identity)

What are you? (Brand meaning)

What do I think or feel about
you? (Brand response)

What kind of association and
how much of connections would I like to have with you? (Brand relationships)


There is an obvious sequence in
this “branding ladder,” that is, meaning cannot be established unless identity
has been created; responses cannot occur unless the right meaning has been
developed; and a relationship cannot be forged unless the proper response have
been elicited.

paper, report no 01-107,2001 writer: kevin lane keller


Brand-building blocks:

Enacting the four steps to
create the right brand identity, brand meaning, brand responses, and brand
relationships is complicated and difficult process.to provide some structure,
its useful to think of six “brand building blocks” to accomplish the four steps
necessary to create strongbrand.to connote the sequencing involved, these
building blocks can be assembled as a brand pyramid. Creating significant brand
equity involves reaching the pinnacle of the pyramid and will only occur if the
right brand building -blocks are in place. The corresponding brand steps
represent different levels of the pyramid as illustrated in figure 1. Figure 2
examines each of the building blocks in detail.



















Figure1.customer- based brand equity pyramid





Figure 1?











Figure 2.subdimentions of brand
building blocks







agree that branding provides a variety of important benefits to the industry


1.     a clear brand identity helps
marketers successfully differentiate their offerings from their competitors

2.     successful branding helps firms
reduce advertising costs by increasing awareness of the brand name

3.     branding helps a firm to become a
leader among the competitors in the same product category

a consequence, a desirable brand identity not only helps increase the profit
margin resulting from consumers ‘willingness to pay a premium for products, it
may lead to profitable brand extensions into the same or different market. Finally,
certain characteristics of branding help firms safeguard their product features
through legal protection from counterfeiting











provides consumers with three major benefits:

1.     risk reduction

2.     information efficiency

3.     self-expression

 (Aaker, 2007; Keller, 2003, 2008; Riesenbeck
& Perrey, 2007).

(2008) argued that branding helps consumers decrease the chance of choosing
a  product that may not perform well or
meet their expectations. Thus, risk reduction is accomplished by providing
assurance of consistent quality. Riesenbeck and Perrey (2007) suggested that
branding may help consumers recognize and become aware of offerings in a
specific product category, which helps them efficiently categorize vast amounts
of information available about the product. Finally, branding involves creating
cognitive structures that help consumers organize knowledge and experience
regarding different  products, which may
help consumers transfer characteristics of the brand onto themselves
(Riesenbeck & Perrey, 2007). This process, in turn, could affect consumers’
perception of a  brand as a reflection of
their personality, character, social status, and lifestyle (Aaker, 2007).

Brand identity
Brand salience. Achieving the right brand
identity  involves creating brand
salience,  brand salience relates to
aspects of customer awareness of the brand. How easily and often is   the
brand evoked under various situations or circumstances ? To  what extent is the brand top-of-mind and
easily recalled recognized? What types of cues or reminders are necessary ? How
pervasive awareness ?






Formally, brand awareness refers to customer’s ability to recall and recognize
a brand. Brand awareness is more than just the fact that customers know a brand
name and the fact that they have previously seen it, perhaps even many times
brand awareness also involves linking the brand – brand name, logo , symbol,
and so forth  to certain associations in
memory . In particular, building brand awareness involves making sure that
customers understand the product or service category  in which the brand competes. There must be
clear links to other product or services sold under the brand name. At a
broader, more abstract level, however, building brand awareness also means
ensuring that customers know which of there needs the brand is designed to
satisfy through this products. In other words, what basic functions does the
brand provide for customers ?

Salience forms the foundational building block in developing brand equity and
provides three important functions. First salience influences the formation and
strength of brand associations that make up the brand image and gives the brand
meaning. Second, creating a high level of brand salience in terms of category
identification and needs satisfied is of crucial importance during possible
purchase or consumption opportunities. Brand salience influences the likelihood
that brand will be a member of the consideration set, those handful of brands
that receive serious consideration for purchase. Brand salience is also
important during possible consumption settings in terms of maximizing potential
usage. Third when customers have “low involvement” with a product category,
they may make choices based on brand salience alone . Low involvement occurs
when customers lack either: (1) purchase motivation (e.g., when customers do
not   care about the product or service or (2) purchse
ability (e.g., when customer do not know anything else about the brands in a
category or lack the expertise to judge quality even if they do know some


















Key criteria for brand identity

 Brand awareness can be distinguished in terms of two
key dimensions depth and breadth . Depth of brand awareness refers to how
easily customers can recall or recognize the brand . Breadth of brand awareness
refers to the range of purchase and consumption situations in which the brand
comes to mind. A highly salient brand is one that possesses both depth and
breadth of brand awareness , so that customers always make sufficient purchases
as well as always  think of the brand in
a variety of settings in which the brand could be employed or consumed .
Thus, in terms of creating brand salience, in many cases it is not only the
depth of brand awareness that matter, but also the breadth of brand awareness
and the proper linkage of the brand to various categories and cues in the minds
of customers. In other words, it is important that the brand not only be
“top-of-mind” and have sufficient “mind share,” but it must also do so at the
right times and right places breadth is an often-neglected consideration, even
for brands that are category leaders with many brands, the key question is not
whether customers can recall the brand, but rather, where do they think of the
brand, when do they think of the brand, and how easily and often do they think
of the brand? In particular , many brands and products are ignored or forgotten
in possible usage situations. Increasing the salience of the brand in those
settings can be effected means to drive consumption and increase sales volume.
For example, a potentially effective strategy for market leader campbell’s
overlooked consumption opportunities.
















Problem statement


Research Objective


Literature Review




Brand awareness


Brand Loyalty


 Brand building


The four steps of brand building:


Brand-building blocks






Brand identity


Key criteria for brand identity





Figure1.customer- based brand equity pyramid


Figure 2.subdimentions of brand building blocks












Brand Loyalty




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