5G technology is an improved technology
which gives improved connectivity and is different from previous generations.
5G offers machine type communication where the network connects billion of
users. The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging and promising technology
which tends to revolutionize the global world through connected physical
objects. IoT deals with low-power devices which interact with each other
through the Internet. LPWA networks are currently being deployed for IoT
applications. 5G promises to bring the reliability, latency,
scalability, security and ubiquitous mobility that would be needed for several
mission-critical services in the IoT space and beyond. Moreover,
5G brings new infrastructure and design with low costs, high agility and at low
energy consumption making it a key component of the communications and
connectivity layer of the IoT technology stack.

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5G, LTE, Low-Power Wide-Area (LPWA), cellular technology

A large variety of communication technologies
has gradually emerged, reflecting a large diversity of application domains and
of communication requirements. LTE is
introduced for mobile devices but it is not well suited for IoT devices because
of low-power and low data rate. The basic  fundamental issues for IoT applications is
the  low power operations, because most
IoT devices are battery powered sensor nodes which could be installed at
inaccessible regions, and replacing or recharging the batteries of such devices
is not feasible.

Security and privacy are also very
important requirements for the IoT because of the built-in heterogeneity of
Internet connected smart objects and the ability to ensure that information that
are transmitted and physical objects connected through the communication medium
are properly monitored and controlled. The other requirements are low
deployment cost, long battery life, low device cost, extended coverage area,


Low-Power Wide-Area (LPWA) technologies
are the existing technology for IoT applications that are currently being used
in connecting both sensors and controllers to the Internet without the
intrusion of Wi-Fi or cellular networks. Their unique features are wide-area
coverage, high energy efficiency, channel bandwidth, data rate, and low power

The main features of current technologies
for IoT are categorized into long-range networks, short-range networks and
cellular technology. Due to demand of connectivity cellular technology has
introduced their own IoT device connectivity landscape.

The new mobile generation has been
extensively used to enhance the quality of voice communications as well as
enabling the opportunity for a new global connectivity solution for end-users
with the objective of ensuring that ubiquitous communication is achieved with
new service requirements.

The second generation (2G) technology can
be used for services including short message applications and fax systems and
it is not reliable for applications such as multimedia and web browsing. 2.5G
networks were introduced to improve the data capacity by adding packet data
capability using General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and Wireless Application
Protocol (WAP).

The third generation (3G) cellular
evolutions lead to massive connectivity of things beyond multimedia
applications such as video conferencing in mobile phones. The tremendous growth
of the Internet affects both wired and wireless communications, and there is a
need to support the rapid growth of the mobile communication industry.

4G LTE networks provides high speed and
bandwidth to the most advanced IoT applications. LTE
was created as an upgrade to the 3G standards. LTE brings amazing new capabilities to the cellular business like
expanding carrier capacity, providing high data rates needed by growing new
applications and making cellular connectivity more reliable.


5G is expected to reach
network speeds up to 20 Gbps (gigabits per
second) or more. It is a
heterogeneous network that integrates 4G, Wi-Fi, millimetre wave, and other
wireless access technologies. 5G mobile networks have to cater for the massive
deployment of IoT with billions of connected smart objects and sensors that
will be a global representation of the real world. The 5G new radio network is
considered for IoT because the demand for machine communications continue to
grow extensively for connecting a massive number of smart devices with the
benefits of using cellular networks.
By offering lower cost, lower energy consumption and support for very large
number of devices, 5G is ready to enable the vision of a truly global Internet
of Things. 5G mobile networks are visualised as a
promising next generation technology to support the massive deployment of
simultaneously connected heterogeneous devices with new service requirements
based on wearable things, improved better coverage edge, low latency, high
versatility and scalability for efficiently enabling IoT applications.

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