Abstract:Now a day’s wireless sensor network is most important technologyfor transferring data through network with secure manner. Before transferringmessage from source node to destination node we can find out path consisting ofconnected links. To identify the routing from source node to destination nodeso many end to end routing protocols are existing in the world. In this paper weare implementing a novel design secure end to end routing protocol for transferdata with securely. Before performing data transformation process we canimplement two more fundamental concepts are user key establishment andauthentication.

The user authentication process enables for identify users bygroup key manager. The generation key we are using differ Hellman key exchangealgorithm.  The authentication of bothusers we are implementing a random nonce based authentication schema. Beforetransferring data to destination node the source will send ids to group keymanager.

The server will find routing from source node to destination node,using that path data will be transferred to destination node.  Before transferring message the source nodewill encrypt the message and send to destination node. By performing dataencryption and decryption process we are using cryptography technique.

So thatby implementing those concepts we can improve efficiency of network and alsoprovide more security of transferred message. Keywords:  wireless sensornetwork, authentication, cryptography, routing, shared key, encryption anddecryption.I.      Introduction  Wireless sensor network (WSN) is widelyconsidered as one of the most important technologies for the twenty-first century.In the past decades, it has received tremendous attention from both academiaand industry all over the world. A WSN typically consists of a large number oflow-cost, low-power, and multifunctional wireless sensor nodes, with sensing,wireless communications and computation capabilities.

These sensor nodescommunicate over short distance via a wireless medium and collaborate toaccomplish a common task, for example, environment monitoring, militarysurveillance, and industrial process control. The basic philosophy behind WSNsis that, while the capability of each individual sensor node is limited, theaggregate power of the entire network is sufficient for the required mission.In many WSN applications, the deployment of sensor nodes is performed in an adhoc fashion without careful planning and engineering. Once deployed, the sensornodes must be able to autonomously organize themselves into a wirelesscommunication network.

Sensor nodes are battery-powered and are expected tooperate without attendance for a relatively long period of time. In most casesit is very difficult and even impossible to change or recharge batteries forthe sensor nodes. WSNs are characterized with denser levels of sensor nodedeployment, higher unreliability of sensor nodes, and sever power, computation,and memory constraints. Thus, the unique characteristics and constraintspresent many new challenges for the development and application of WSNs.  Dueto the severe energy constraints of large number of densely deployed sensornodes, it requires a suite of network protocols to implement various networkcontrol and management functions such as synchronization, node localization,and network security.

The traditional routing protocols have severalshortcomings when applied to WSNs, which are mainly due to theenergy-constrained nature of such networks. For example, flooding is atechnique in which a given node broadcasts data and control packets that it hasreceived to the rest of the nodes in the network. This process repeats untilthe destination node is reached. Note that this technique does not take intoaccount the energy constraint imposed by WSNs. As a result, when used for datarouting in WSNs, it leads to the problems such as implosion and overlap. Giventhat flooding is a blind technique, duplicated packets may keep circulate inthe network, and hence sensors will receive those duplicated packets, causingan implosion problem. Also, when two sensors sense the same region andbroadcast their sensed data at the same time, their neighbour’s will receiveduplicated packets. To overcome the shortcomings of flooding, another techniqueknown as gossiping can be applied.

In gossiping, upon receiving a packet, asensor would select randomly one of its neighbours and send the packet to it.The same process repeats until all sensors receive this packet. Usinggossiping, a given sensor would receive only one copy of a packet being sent.While gossiping tackles the implosion problem, there is a significant delay fora packet to reach all sensors in a network. Furthermore, these inconveniencesare highlighted when the number of nodes in the network increases.

 Our focus is on routing security inwireless sensor networks. Current proposals for routing protocols in sensornetworks optimize for the limited capabilities of the nodes and the applicationspecific nature of the networks, but do not consider security. Although theseprotocols have not been designed with security as a goal, we feel it isimportant to analyse their security properties. When the defender has theliabilities of insecure wireless communication, limited node capabilities, andpossible insider threats, and the adversaries can use powerful laptops withhigh energy and long range communication to attack the network, designing asecure routing protocol is non-trivial. We present crippling attacks againstall the major routing protocols for sensor networks. Because these protocolshave not been designed with security as a goal, it is unsurprising they are allinsecure.

However, this is non-trivial to fix: it is unlikely a sensor networkrouting protocol can be made secure by incorporating security mechanisms afterdesign has completed. Our assertion is that sensor network routing protocolsmust be designed with security in mind, and this is the only effective solutionfor secure routing in sensor networks II.   related workCurrently, the progression of wirelesstechnology in various application areas including military, industrial,environmental, medical, crisis management, smart environments to name but afew, leads to the emergence of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) at anaccelerated pace to collect and communicate information from remote locationswirelessly. A wireless sensor network (WSN) can be treated as a co-operativenetwork of small size, low power, smart devices named as Nodes or Motes, whichhave the capability of sensing a physical phenomenon (like temperature,humidity, pressure, vibration…etc) and relay the same or processed informationto a sink via wireless links possibly with multiple hops between these nodes.

The unique characteristics of WSN such as small size, low power consumption,autonomous, mobility, dense in volume, self-healing and self-organizing posessome constraints in terms of power consumption, storage, processingcapabilities and bandwidth requirement. Even though energy efficiency is of amajor concern, providing the required Quality of Service (QoS) in terms oftimeliness, reliability, fault tolerance, is also of a major concern for therespective applications. For an instance, a wireless sensor network which isdeployed in a nuclear power plant to monitor the release of radioactive fluids,has to detect the leakage at an infant stage and the corresponding alert has torelay to the control room with in a defined dead time, otherwise it may causecatastrophic effect. Likewise, WSNs have gained an immense attention for theirability in meeting the real time QoS guarantee in many time critical scenarios.

In general, real time packet communication guarantee can be categorized as i)Hard Real Time (HRT) ii) Soft Real Time (SRT) . HRT should support adeterministic dead time. That implies, delivery of a message after the deadtime is considered as a failure, sometime it may lead to a catastrophic effect.On the other hand, SRT supports probabilistic dead time, which allows some sortof latency in message delivery. Providing a real time communication in case ofWSNs is a challenging task because of the highly unpredictable nature ofwireless links, variable data packets relaying and energy, bandwidth constraints.The requirement of real time guarantee can be addressed from differentmechanisms in different layers of protocol stack of WSN. I.e.

by means of anefficient protocol in MAC layer, efficient routing protocol in network layer,by in network data aggregation mechanism and even cross layer design approach .In this paper, we presented a comprehensive survey of various real time routingprotocols in WSNs, which meets the requirement of timeliness along with otherQoS in time critical applications. Routing isanother very challenging design issue for WSNs. A properly designed routingprotocol should not only ensure a high message delivery ratio and low energyconsumption for message delivery, but also balance the entire sensor networkenergy consumption, and thereby extend the sensor network lifetime Motivated bythe fact that WSNs routing is often geography based, we propose ageography-based secure and efficient Cost-Aware Secure routing (CASER) protocolfor WSNs without relying on flooding.

CASER allows messages to be transmittedusing two routing strategies, random walking and deterministic routing, in thesame framework. The distribution of these two strategies is determined by thespecific security requirements. This scenario is analogous to delivering USMail through USPS: express mails cost more than regular mails; however, mailscan be delivered faster. The protocol also provides a secure message deliveryoption to maximize the message delivery ratio under adversarial attacks. Inaddition, we also give quantitative secure analysis on the proposed routingprotocol based on the criteria proposed in Routing is a challenging task in WSNs due to the limited resources.

Geographicrouting has been widely viewed as one of the most promising approaches forWSNs. Geographic routing protocols utilize the geographic location informationto route data packets hop-by-hop from the source to the destination. Whilegeographic routing algorithms have the advantages that each node only needs tomaintain its neighbouring information, and provide a higher efficiency and abetter scalability for large scale WSNs, these algorithms may reach their localminimum, which can result in dead end or loops. To solve the local minimum problem,some variations of these basic routing algorithms were proposed in. In ,source-location privacy is provided through broadcasting that mixes validmessages with dummy messages. The main idea is that each node needs to transmitmessages consistently. III. proposed system In this paper we proposed anovel design end to end routing protocol for finding shortest path and alsoprovide authentication of communication entities in the network.

Beforeperforming the finding shortest route the source node and destination node willgenerate shared key and perform the authentication process. After completion ofauthentication process the source node will send destination id to server.Before performing encryption and decryption process we can find shortest routeby using end to end routing protocol. After that the sender will encryptmessage and convert into cipher format. The completion of encryption processthe sender will send that cipher format data to destination node through thepath. The destination node will retrieve that data and perform the decryptionprocess. By performing decryption process the destination node will getoriginal message.

The implementation procedure of user’s authentication is asfollows. Mutual AuthenticationProcess: After completion of building network we canperform the mutual authentication of both users in the network. By implementingprocess of mutual authentication is as follows.  1. Now if two users U1 and U2have become adjacent to one another, then these users are need to executeauthentication process so that User U1 proves to U2 anduser U2 proves to U1.

 2. Before performing verification process each userwill choose two prime numbers p and g. 3. After that each user will choose one private key(a) and calculate public key based on following formula.       Public key= g a mod p 4. After calculating public keys each user willshared those values and again will calculate shared key base on followingformula. Sharedkey= pub a mod p 5.

By calculating those shared keys are same forboth users. 6. After completion of shared keys each user will beverified by each other by performing following process.    i).User U1choose random nonce and send message that is received by user U2.   ii).User U2also choose random nonce and send message that is received by user U1.   iii).

Aftersending that random nonce user U1 will generate verification messagefor User U2. The generation of verification message is as follows.          Verify(U1, U2, H (n|U1|U2|shared key1) After generating verification message that send toUser U2 iv).The user U2 also generateverification message for User U1 and send that message to User U1.     Verify (U2,U1, H (U2|U1|n|shared key2))        After sending those verification messages each and every user willverify and both verification messages are equals those are the authenticatedusers. If both verification messages are not equal those are not authenticatedusers. After that the sender will choose the destination node id and send thatid to server.

By using those ids of sender and receiver the server will findout shortest route by calculating shortest distance between nodes or users orgroup members.   Generation ofdistance matrix and finding Shortest Routing:        In thismodule the server will generate distance matrix and finding shortest route. Theimplementation process of distance matrix is as follows.  1. The server willget all nodes of distance points and using those points we can generatedistance matrix. 2. Take the each node distancepoints and calculate difference between each node put into matrix format. Thisprocess will repeat until completion of all nodes distance.

 3. The distance of each node toother node is as follow.     di= (x1-x2) + (y1 –y2 ) 4. Finding distance source nodeto other nodes by using following formula int max=0; int min=di; if(max

 6. So that the data send throughpath and reached the destination node. After finding the path source node willtransfer the data through path to destination node. Before sending data todestination node the source node will encrypt the data and transfer todestination node. The implementation procedure encryption and decryption is asfollows.  Encryption Process:                 Inthis module the sender node will enter transferred message and convert thatmessage to unknown format. By converting plain format data into unknown formatis known as encryption process. The implementation procedure of encryptionprocess is as follows.

 1. The sender node will takemessage and key as input of encryption process. 2. The sender node gets singlecharacter from message and converts into decimal value.  3. Take the decimal value and keyperform the xor operation until message length is completed.

 4. After completion of xoroperation take the each decimal value and convert into eight bit binary format. 5. Take the each eight bit binarydata and partition into equal parts. 6. Take those equal parts andreverse those binary partitions. Performing this reverse process until themessage binary bits of data is completed.

 7. Take those binary reverse bitsand generate 32 * 32 matrix format. 8.

Take that matrix and performcircular rotation from outer circle to inner circle. 9. After completion of circularrotation read each eight bit binary format and convert into decimal value. Thisprocess continues until all matrix data is completed.   Take thosedecimal values as cipher format data and send to destination node through thepath. The destination node will retrieve cipher format data and convert intoplain format data by performing decryption process. The implementation processof decryption is as follows.

 Decryption Process: In this module the destination node will performdecryption process for converting cipher format data into plain format. 1. The destination node will takecipher format data and key as input to decryption process.2.

The destination node takeseach decimal value from cipher data and converts into eight bit binary formatdata. 3. Take those binary format dataand generate 32 * 32 matrix format.

 4. Take those matrix format dataand perform reverse circular rotation from outer circle to inner circle. 5. After completion of circlerotation process take each eight bit binary format data and performing equalsub partition. 6. Take those partitions binarydata and perform the reverse process of both sub parts. 7. After completion of reverseprocess take each eight bit binary format data and convert into decimal formatuntil completion of cipher binary format data.

 8. Take decimal value and keyperform the xor operation between them until completion of all decimal values. 9.

Take the xor data and convertinto character format it will get plain format message.      Byimplementing those concepts we can improve the network efficiency and alsoprovide more security of transferring message.IV. Conclusions Our proposed system we are implementing a novel designprotocol for performing authentication and key generation process. It can alsoimplement concepts for finding shortest route from source node to destinationnode. In this paper we can also implement the concepts data encryption anddecryption process. Before performing authentication of the source node anddestination node will generate shared key by using differ hellman key exchangealgorithm. After completion of key generation both users will be verified byeach other by using random nonce based authentication schema.

After that thesource node will send the destination id to server for generation of shortestpath. The server retrieve source node and destination node, using those nodesids the server will calculate shortest route from source node to destinationnode. After finding the shortest route the server send that path to both users.Both users are retrieve path and source node will encrypt the transferredmessage.  After converting plain formatdata into cipher format data can be send to specified destination node.

Thedestination node will retrieve the cipher format and perform the decryptionprocess, it will get original plain format message. So that by proposing thoseconcepts we can provide more security of transferring message and also improve networkefficiency.                                  References  1. I.

F. Akyildiz et al, W.Su,Y.

Sankarasubramaniam, E.Cayirci “Wireless sensor networks: a survey”, ComputerNetworks, Vol. 38, pp. 393- 422, March 2002  2 K.

Akkaya, M younis “A survey on routing protocolsfor wireless sensor networks” Ad Hoc Networks 3 (2005), pp 325-345, 2005. 3.M. L. Das, “Two-factor user authentication in wireless sensornetworks,” IEEE Trans.

Wireless Commun., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 1086–1090,Mar. 2009.

 4. L.Eschenauer and V. D.

Gligor, “A key-management scheme for distributed sensornetworks,” in Proc. ACM Conf. CCS, 2002, pp.

41–47.  5. L.

Harn and C. F. Hsu, “Predistribution scheme for establishing group keys inwireless sensor networks,” IEEE Sensors J., vol. 15, no. 9,pp.5103–5108, Sep. 2015.

 6 W.Gu, N. Dutta, S. Chellappan, and X. Bai, “Providing end-to-end securecommunications in wireless sensor networks,” IEEE Trans. Netw. ServiceManage.

, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 205–218, Sep. 2011. 7. “21 ideas for the 21st century”, BusinessWeek, Aug. 30 1999, pp.

78-167.8. S.K.

Singh, M.P. Singh, and D.K.

Singh, “A surveyof Energy-Efficient Hierarchical Cluster-based Routing in Wireless SensorNetworks”, International Journal of Advanced Networking and Application(IJANA), Sept.–Oct. 2010, vol. 02, issue 02, pp. 570–580.  9. S.

K. Singh, M.P. Singh, and D.

K. Singh,”Energy-efficient Homogeneous Clustering Algorithm for Wireless SensorNetwork”, International Journal of Wireless & Mobile Networks (IJWMN),Aug. 2010, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 49-61.

 10. Jun Zheng and Abbas Jamalipour, “Wireless SensorNetworks: A Networking Perspective”, a book published by A John & Sons,Inc, and IEEEE, 2009. 11. Luis Javier García Villalba, Ana Lucila SandovalOrozco, Alicia Triviño Cabrera, and Cláudia Jacy Barenco Abbas, “RoutingProtocol in Wireless Sensor Networks”, Sensors 2009, vol.

9, pp. 8399- 8421.  12. E.

Zanaj, M. Baldi, and F. Chiaraluce,”Efficiency of the Gossip Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks”, In Proceedingsof the 15th International Conference on Software, Telecommunications andComputer Networks (SoftCOM), Split–Dubrovnik, Croatia, September, 2007.

Written by

I'm Colleen!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out