to Fransesca and Carlo (2017), farming sectors remains a vital components of
the global economy and it constantly evolving. Moreover, with the increasing of
world population, demands for animal products are growing where livestock units
are increasing year by year resulting large amounts of animal waste. The annual
production of livestocks units around the world is several trillions every year
with the main livestocks categories are poultry (more than 500 billions units),
cattle and calves (940 millions units), sheep, lamb and goats (890 millions
units) and pigs and hogs (650 millions units). The main types of waste derived
from farming activities are carcasses and manure. Besides that, different types
of animal waste and residues were generated in slaughterhouses and during meat
processing activities in food industries. 


waste can impair surface water and groundwater by introducing pollutants such
as nutrients (including nitogen and phosphorus), organic matter, sediments,
pathogens (bacteria and viruses), heavy metals, hormones, antibiotics and
ammonia. These pollutants
are transported by rainwater, snowmelt, or irrigation waterthrough or over land
surfaces and are eventually deposited in rivers, lakes,and coastal waters or
introduced into groundwater. These pollutants can affect water quality and
public health in several ways, such as contaminating drinking water supplies
and killing fish. Other potential environmental problems associated with animal
production include odors,
the loss of wildlife habitat, and
the depletion of groundwater.


According to Zaini and Lukman (2015),
Malaysia is one of the developing countries with increasing activities in
livestock industry. Livestock industry is a third

generator of growth for Malaysian economy.
Statistics issued by the Department of Statistic Malaysia in 2011 indicated
that the livestock output has been steadily increasing from the year 2006 up to
2010; beef (45%), mutton/lamb (50%), pork (8%), poultry (25%), eggs (26.8%) and
dairy (47.3%). Abdeshahian et al.,2016 reported
that from 2004 to 2014, there were increasing trend of livestock production in
Malaysia resulting an increase of production of farm animals manure and the
difficulties of disposing a large amount of manure . This could represent a
severe pollution danger and high nutrient release to the environment.


In 2006, the Department of Environment
(DOE) Malaysia received 1082 cases on odour issues and pollution (Zaini and
Lukman, 2015). The trend indicated that odour issues are increasing each year
which reports on the cases were often linked to various industries such as
livestock, chemical industries, rubber processing industries, oil palm, urban
solid wastes, sewage treatment plants, petroleum

industries and others. The increase of complaints come
from the sensitive receivers near the odour source clearly indicated that odour
problem has affected their lives.


Report by Nasip et al., (undated) decribed
that the change of traditional extensive to intensive animal production
resulting large accumulation of animal waste in Sabah and pig sectors has been
identified as the main sector contribute to the environmental issues. Due to
religious sensitivity, several activities on utilization of pig waste for
biogas, biofertilizer or animal feed can not be done. Moreover, the waste were
collected in open-air pit called waste lagoon with minimal treatment. It is
reported that 68% of pig farms in Malacca has small retaining ponds for pig
waste which cause over-loaded and some were not functional. This may cause
health risk and provide favourable environment for the growth of the bacteria.
Besides that, uncontrolled discharged waste from poultry processing and dumping
of chicken carcasses may cause malodour and provide suitable breeding
environment for vectors or other pathogenic organisms. In general, the report
determine that livestock farming cause environmental problems such as water
pollution, malodour or air pollution and potential source of diseases.

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