According to World Health Organization, Intellectual Disability is significantly reduced ability to understand new or complex information and to learn and apply new skills. This result, in a reduced ability to cope independently and begins before adulthood with a lasting effect on environment. In other words, A person who suffers from intellectual disability is unable to understand normal things, they forget things frequently as well as unable to do daily tasks.  1.2)  Complete the table below to identify the causes and effect to intellectual disability: Stages the disability occurs           Causes            Effects Before Birth Genetics factors Down’s syndrome, deformities in facial features.  Excessive use of alcohol during pregnancy.  Delays in learning and in development of brain. During birth or immediately following birth Umbilical cord: when  cord coil is wrapped around the neck of baby it causes hypoxia that may also led to intellectual disability  In this situation, baby is uncapable to understand things immediately.   Forceful delivery  with the help of forceps.  In this, a baby can suffer from head injuries, he or she may have problem in learning. In Childhood Trauma or head injuries. It refers that a baby have problem in learning as well as in acquire knowledge and in speaking.  Environmental factors and harmful gases.  this child is unable to do daily tasks and problem in memory.  3. Choose two conditions often associated with intellectual disability and complete the table below:  Condition One:  Epilepsy What causes it: It causes due to the tumor, chemical imbalance(such as low blood sugar), head injuries, drugs, alcohol withdrawal and birth injuries etc. When does it usually occur: It occurs 2 years age of children and in adults over the age of 65. What are two characteristics of this:  1. Physical characteristics of epilepsy are fatigue and anemia, pain crises,  lung and heart injuries, eye damage.  2.Some behavioral characteristics are memory gaps, tongue biting etc. Seizures also put bad impressions on the functioning of brain. It usually affects how a person appears or acts for a short time.   Condition two: Down’s syndrome What causes it: It causes due to chromosomes. Normal person has 46 chromosomes but person who is suffering from this syndrome have 47 chromosomes or having abnormalities in brain and body develop. When does it usually occur: It occurs immediately after birth. What are two characteristics of it: It affects peoples both physically as well as mentally. Some physical symptoms are eyes shapes are like almonds, flatter face especially nose, small ears as well as low muscle tone. Some mentally characteristics are need extra help in learning to read and write. Harder to manage feelings.   Task 2. Support needs of a person you support who has an intellectual disability :  What are the support needs of a person you support who has an intellectual disability:  What is their intellectual disability:                                       Autism What are their physical, social and cognitive  support needs? Physical needs:  Regular movements are very helpful for the children as autism effect to the motor activities. Taking part in learning activities. Helping in daily tasks such as changing, clothing and feeding etc. Social needs: Help them to make positive relationships and make good friends. Children should learn social skills like how to behave good with the people of society.  Cognitive needs: In this, children should get aware to  the learning and communication methods. Their should be proper teachings to make them developed physically ae well as socially.   2. What resources are available in the community to support these needs:  Type of support:  What resources are available Physical Playground equipment,  special classes for learning and encourage them in taking part in it. Regular exercises to keep them  fit. Social Community access and transportation as required. Finding and holding meaningful job as well as facilitating opportunities to build and maintain relationships. Cognitive Individualized support with learning and education depending on need. Speech and language theory, target teaching plans and helping the person to manage their own diet properly. Others Providing extraordinary support for a person to participate in activities involving with typical human functioning.  Definition: intellectual disability. (2018, January 26). Retrieved from http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/noncommunicable-diseases/mental-health/news/news/2010/15/childrens-right-to-family-life/definition-intellectual-disability. a 

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