In order to adequately turn to the inquiry of why Sustainable Development is of import in the context of the Small Island Developing State of Grenada it is of import to first understand what Sustainable Development is and what it entails. Second, the features of Grenada must be described in footings of the most feasible attack for accomplishing Sustainable Development.
Harmonizing to the Brundtland Report ( 1987 ) , sustainable development is “ development that meets the demands of the present without compromising the ability of future coevalss to run into their ain demands ” The committee besides emphasizes that whether a state is considered developed or developing ( in the context of Grenada ) “ the ends of societal and economic development must be defined in footings of sustainability ” .
Harmonizing to the CIA World Fact Book ( 2010 ) , Grenada relies to a great extent on touristry as its chief agencies of foreign exchange. The touristry industry contributed 72.98 % of Grenada ‘s overall GDP in 2008 ( World Bank Statistics, 2008 ) , which underpins the importance of this industry to the economic system. Therefore, sustainable development as it pertains to Grenada should be examined within the model of touristry since it is Grenada ‘s chief income generator and in kernel what fuels the economic system. However, it must be noted that touristry is non the lone industry that can be looked at in footings of sustainability in Grenada. Agriculture, building, fabrics and nutrient and drinks are besides other industries. However, these besides feed into the touristry sector.
Harmonizing to Joseph ( 2010 ) , touristry utilizes the historic, economic, socio-cultural and environment to turn and develop. The construct of sustainability as it relates to tourism put forth by McKercher ( 2003 ) further strengthens this point since its attack is really holistic and encompasses four chief pillars ; economic, ecological/environment, cultural and local. All four pillars are recognized as being paramount in order to accomplish any signifier of sustainability. Therefore each pillar will be examined in the in the context of Grenada.
Harmonizing to McKercher ( 2003 ) economic sustainability is geared at gaining the state in both the immediate and long term. Tourism affords the Small Island Developing State of Grenada the chance of bettering its economic wellbeing ( Joseph, 2010 ) . Grenada derives many economic benefits from the touristry industry. The revenue enhancement grosss collected as a consequence of adjustment, eating house revenue enhancements, airdrome and gross revenues revenue enhancements all provide the authorities with much required revenue enhancement grosss. The occupations created are spread across the economic system, such a retail, building, fabrication and communications ( Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 1999 ) . Additionally, it earns the state valuable foreign exchange. This new money which is brought into the state in bend creates a multiplier consequence, therefore go arounding many sections of the economic system ( Joseph, 2010 ) . Tourism besides attracts extra concerns and services as a agency of support.
Grenada is presently sing tough economic times as a consequence of the planetary fiscal crisis. As a consequence, unemployment and poorness degrees are increasing making the demand of employment chances for locals. Harmonizing to the International Monetary Fund ( 2010 ) , the Gross Domestic Product of Grenada is estimated to hold declined 7.7 % with a 13 % bead in touristry. Therefore, one of the economic concerns for touristry in Grenada that this brings to the head is the diverseness of the local economic system. Harmonizing to McKercher ( 2003 ) the variegation of the merchandises by developing a broad scope of touristry activities is portion of economic sustainability. This should be taken into consideration since the touristry sector in Grenada is seasonal therefore being unable to supply steady watercourses of income. Besides, Grenada is susceptible to natural catastrophes peculiarly hurricanes which have a annihilating consequence on touristry substructure. Therefore, the acceptance of sustainable touristry development could function to make diverseness and therefore extenuate against economic exposure in the touristry sector. Another economic consideration that pertains to sustainable touristry in Grenada is the minimisation of escape. McKercher ( 2003 ) promotes the formation of partnerships throughout the full supply concatenation from micro-sized local concerns to transnational organisations. A major signifier of escape in the context of Grenada is that many of the net incomes generated from the industry are exported since many of the major tourer operations are owned by aliens. For Example, many Villas are being built in Grenada by foreign investors who subsequently sell these Villas to single proprietors, therefore non significantly lending back to the local economic system. The Port Louis undertaking is a perfect illustration. Although the laguna is much more picturesque than it was before Peter De Savary invested in it. Grenadians have n’t straight benefited from this development since Mr. De Savary has made his net income by selling the belongings to Camper and Nicholson, another foreign proprietor, and left with his money. Consequently, the happening of escape consequences in the local population bearing the environmental and cultural costs of touristry while retaining comparatively small of the economic benefits and therefore cut downing the multiplier consequence.
Over the last few old ages Grenada has experienced a enormous sum of development as a consequence of touristry. However, many of these developments were non executed in an economically sustainable mode. Bhola ( 2010 ) emphasizes that economically sustainable touristry should guarantee feasible, long-run economic operations, supplying socio-economic benefits to all stakeholders that are reasonably distributed, including stable employment and income, gaining chances and societal services to host communities and lending to poverty relief. The Brundtland Report ( 1987 ) further stresses the integrating of economic and ecological considerations in determination devising because these concerns need no needfully hold to be in resistance.
McKercher ( 2003 ) purports that when it pertains to ecological/environmental sustainability that any signifier of development must be compatible with the care of indispensable ecological procedures, biological diverseness and biological resources. However, in the context of Grenada ‘s touristry industry, harmonizing to Kelly ( 2008 ) the Grenadian authorities is giving the island ‘s pristine [ environment ] to the fast vaulting horse of resort development. The Mount Hartman estate development is one such undertaking identified as a possible menace to a piece of land of pristine dry wood and boggy Rhizophora mangles and besides the Grenada Dove which Mount Hartman happens to be a nesting site for. Harmonizing to Dr. Clare Morrall ( as cited by Kelly, 2008 ) “ Grenada ‘s Rhizophora mangles are improbably of import to the ecosystems of the environing country and what is go oning in Grenada will hold an impact on fishing stocksaˆ¦which are at the point of prostration. ”
The environmental features of Grenada are one of the chief grounds that it is such an attractive tourer finish. These include the exuberant green flora, white sandy beaches and keen Marine and tellurian life. However, touristry puts added strain on these resources through extra demand and imbalanced economic development ( Bhola, 2010 ) . Some of the environmental jobs associated with touristry are deforestation, H2O and air pollution, hapless solid waste direction patterns and coastal devastation of coral reefs, Rhizophora mangles etc ( Joseph, 2010 ) . The development of hotels, marinas and seaports along our coastline has served to damage shoreline ecosystems, coral reefs and mangrove systems. Harmonizing to Burke, Greenhalgh & A ; Prager et.al ( 2008 ) , “ the valuable goods and services provided by ecosystems such as coral reefs are frequently overlooked or underappreciated in coastal investing, development and policy determinations, ensuing in short-sighted determinations that do non maximise the long-run economic potency of coastal countries. ” Therefore, non merely is the environment affected but the viability of Grenada as a tourer finish is besides compromised which in bend threatens economic good being since these resources are depended upon to back up Grenada ‘s chief industry. World Bank Statistics ( 2008 ) shows that Grenada presently has 3 mammals and three works species that are threatened. The Caribbean part and by extension Grenada has been listed as one of the top hot spots for endemic species worldwide, yet “ the Caribbean retains merely 11.3 % of its primary flora ” ( Myers et Al, 2000 ) . This exemplifies the deficiency of concern for the environment and how development has been allowed to significantly lend to the decrease of our natural resources. Harmonizing to Gardiner ( 2009 ) , “ of all time signifier of life on this planet does non stand on it ‘s ain but is supported by, and supports, other populating things. ” He farther goes on to province that to lose one species is tantamount to losing an of import portion of the ecosystem. This therefore underscores what is at interest if these mammal and works species identified by the World Bank as being endangered in Grenada are allowed to go nonextant. As a consequence, both environmental and economic exposure of Grenada is being exacerbated by unsustainable development.
Another really of import facet of sustainable development is cultural sustainability. Harmonizing to McKercher ( 2003 ) , cultural sustainability increases people ‘s control over their lives and is compatible with the civilization and values of those affected and beef up the community individuality. Grenada ‘s history of colonialism has created a really alone and diverse civilization and history which serves to heighten its marketability as a tourer finish. Colonialism has facilitated a motion of people to the Caribbean and by extension Grenada from Africa and Asia with has greatly influenced the formation of the civilization through the mixture of experiences from these different Diasporas ( Smyth, 2010 ) . Carnival, Parang, Maroon festival, Folklore, threading set music, large membranophone dance and slang are a few of the cultural facets of Grenada that adds to the attraction of the touristry merchandise ( Joseph, 2010 ) . Although touristry could function to reenforce the saving and preservation of heritage and traditions, it can besides degrade the cultural environment through the commercialisation of the civilization, faith and humanistic disciplines ( Joseph, 2009 ) . Many perceivers believe that touristry has negatively impacted the Grenadian civilization and society.
Harmonizing to McKercher ( 2003 ) , cultural sustainability should “ vouch the protection of nature, local and the autochthonal civilizations and particularly traditional cognition. “ One of the cardinal ways in which touristry negatively impacts society is through the conflicting life styles and thoughts between the tourer and the locals. In the Grenadian context, the locals try to copy these life styles and thoughts which lead to a dilution of the civilization and value systems on the island. This in bend additions societal jobs such as larceny and harlotry, and increased intoxicant and drug usage. In add-on, the divisions between the tourer and the local population can do a batch of tenseness. This tenseness arises from the fact that little communities where poorness, unemployment and overcrowding are permeant are sometimes located near to hotels and other developments specifically designated for the tourer. As a consequence, locals become aggravated since they feel a sense of inequality in their ain state. Erstwhile locals are even displaced in order to suit a tourer. This was exemplified during the development of the Port Louis undertaking where many of the locals were relocated to La Sagesse in St. David ‘s in order to do room for the Villa. In this instance the new development was one time where the locals depended on their support through fishing.
Local sustainability is besides a cardinal facet of sustainable development. Harmonizing to McKercher ( 2010 ) , local sustainability should “ be designed to profit the local communities and generate and retain income in those communities ” . The proviso of choice employment to community occupants and the just distribution of fiscal benefits throughout the supply concatenation are identified as being of import facets of local sustainability. Local industries such as agriculture and fishing should use sustainable patterns, which should besides be developed to run into the demands of the tourer. This could in bend minimize the effects of escape. Many of the goods used by the touristry industry are bought outside of the state because many times the local providers can non adequately fitting demand or supply the right quality. A locally sustainable attack would supply inducements and preparation to local providers ( husbandmans, craftsmen, fishermen etc. ) to better their criterions and besides to happen other avenues to profit from touristry. The Gouyave fish Friday is an illustration of how a local fishing community was able to profit from touristry non by straight providing to the hotels but through their ain enterprise and therefore straight profiting. However, Tourism puts added strain on local industries such as fishing and agriculture, hence, a sustainable attack must be employed in order to guarantee that the locals continue to profit. The Levera polo-neck protection group is another illustration of how the locals were diverted from working the polo-neck, by killing them for meat, to protecting them. This is more sustainable because a protected polo-neck will be about for a longer period to bring forth income for the locals, whereas the old attack would hold finally resulted in them going nonextant.
The importance of sustainable touristry in the context of Grenada must be emphasized since the benefits that can be derived from it are legion. The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs ( 1999 ) farther underscore this point by saying that “ the sustainable development of touristry is of importance for all states, in peculiar for Small Island Developing States. ” The economic, environmental, cultural and local security of Grenada is at interest if sustainable development is non adequately adopted in Grenada ‘s attack towards touristry. If a sustainable attack is non employed there is much at interest. The cost of mending amendss to the Marine every bit good as the tellurian environment could set added strain on the economic system. Besides, at interest is possibility of loss of endangered works and mammal life and biodiversity. The state will besides go on to see and increased province of exposure towards the effects of clime alteration since harmonizing to AOSIS ( 2009 ) , “ clime alteration poses the most serious menace to our endurance and viability and that it undermines our attempts to accomplish sustainable developmental ends and threatens our very being ” . Besides at interest is the debasement of Grenada ‘s civilization and traditions. Nettleford ( 1977 ) emphasizes the importance of civilization by saying that the issue of cultural individuality is of great significanceaˆ¦and as such should be treated with the same degree of importance as economic ego sufficiency. In add-on, the public assistance of the local population could be significantly compromised since there is a possibility of increased poorness. The Brundtland Report ( 1987 ) stresses that “ poverty reduces people ‘s capacity to use resources in a sustainable mode which intensifies the saddle horse of force per unit area placed on the environment ” . Therefore, every facet of life in Grenada can be affected if a sustainable attack to touristry in non instantly employed.
Therefore it can be concluded that, since touristry is such an built-in portion of Grenada ‘s economic system, if a sustainable attack is adopted it can significantly lend to environmental protection, preservation and Restoration of biological diverseness and the sustainable use of natural resources ( UNEP, 2003 ) . A sustainable attack to touristry in Grenada should use a holistic attack embracing the economic, environmental, cultural and local facets since all these different sections of the state function to profit. The version of a sustainable attack in the economic sense would better the diverseness and functionality of the sector while at the same clip supplying a broad scope of economic benefits. The goods and services provided by the environment will be preserved through ecological sustainability. Cultural sustainability would function to advance the saving and jubilation of the local civilization and beliefs. And, local sustainability provides the locals with rewarding and immediate work and income chances. Consequently, of all time facet of life would be positively impacted and the Small Island Developing State of Grenada could procure a more feasible hereafter.