in Natural Sciences the experts can have different thoughts about how the world
works and what elements are present
in the world also the experts devise many theories which helps us understand
more about the world. The atomic theory which was first introduced by
John Dalton in the year 1803 with an oral presentation and a publication in
1805, many experts had given theories which Dalton used in his model to give
substantive evidence, the experts before Dalton did not find out about atom but
still helped Dalton to build upon them and through experimentation was able to
prove the smallest particle ‘atoms’ existence. The experts agreed on Dalton’s
atomic structure until it was falsified by J.J. Thompson and Ernest Rutherford
when they found out about the electron having a negative charge which was a
part inside the atom thus, making it the smallest particle. J.J. Thompson also
created the plum pudding model which was in hope to create an electrically
neutral atom but Thompson’s student Rutherford falsified the plum pudding model
in 1911 by finding out that an atom contains a positive charge and most of the
atoms mass is in the centre/nucleus. By Rutherford identifying the proton and
neutron it was Henry Moseley who changed the way the periodic table was
arranged by seeing the x-ray emissions of the elements, the periodic table was
then arranged according to the atomic number instead of the atomic mass, which
is the periodic table we currently use. In natural sciences the theory or law
is in consensus by the experts until and unless someone falsifies it, once it
is falsified the disagreements starts to happen which causes the new theory or
law to be developed and accepted. These falsifications take place when the
experimentation gives a different result from the last time, the observations
that are made can be have errors because the observation is based on human
sense perception and our senses cannot always be reliable. This all signifies
the historical development of the theories and laws with the increasing
advancement of technology.

The latest and
the widely accepted atomic model is the Bohr’s Model created by Niels Bohr who
improved the Rutherford’s model by explaining the emission and the absorption
spectra and also why the electrons do not crash into the nucleus. Now this
model replaced the previous model by advancements in it and by more detailed
explanation and analysis of the structure. The experts are in consensus about
this model and is used by the experts till now. The first model was created in
1803 which lacked many explanations that we now know about, the continuous
progress of the model has historically developed a lot and can further be
developed with the new thinking and by disagreements of the experts or
consensus of the experts on the atomic model. It may happen that someone may
improve the Bohr’s model resulting in a newer model which can be in consensus
by the experts. Natural Sciences tend to be in consensus until and unless
someone falsifies the theory or law however, the disagreements exist with the
course of time as the experts understand more about the theory or law and can
question on its very proof.

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Concludingly, the
creation of robust knowledge does not always depend on the consensus or
disagreements that the experts have on a claim raised, but the creation of
robust knowledge can also be dependent on the course of time. The claim or
findings put up by an expert can be accepted by the other experts for a
particular time, it may happen that the claim or findings had a limitation
which was solved with the course of time. As mentioned about human sciences,
people used to believe that economic growth always leads to economic
development but as the time passed people realised that economic development
does depend on various other factors. Just as is the case of natural sciences,
until and unless a theory is falsified it is accepted by the experts but with
the advancements in technology and better observations the findings can give
different and improved results leading to a new or more improved theory to be
accepted. The claims and counterclaims put up from both the areas of knowledge
reflect that sometimes the knowledge does not exist without consensus or
disagreement whereas sometimes the knowledge can exist with only consensus or


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