The most common and normally most convenient path for administrating conventional pharmaceutical dose signifiers is orally, where the drug dissolves in the stomachic and/or enteric fluids and is absorbed to make the site of action. Dissolution and soaking up of the drug from the gastro-intestinal environment depends upon many factors e.g. the physico-chemical belongingss of the drug, enzymes, metamorphosis, pH of the fluids etc. and these are considered as major drawback when localized drug bringing in the colon is required. Colonic drug bringing system offers advantages over unwritten dose signifiers in bettering the efficaciousness and accomplishing high concentrations with minimum side-effects1.

1.1.1. Advantages and restrictions of rectal dose signifiers

Advantages:

Safe and painless signifier of disposal.

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Drugs apt to debasement in the GI piece of land can be disposal.

First base on balls riddance ( drugs apt to degrade before making the site of action ) of high clearance drugs is partly owing to short-circuiting the liver.

Even larger doses can be administered.

Drugs can be administered rectally in the long term attention of geriatric and terminally sick patients.

Administration of rectal suppositories or capsules is a simple process that can be under taken even by unskilled health care forces and patients.

Restrictions:

Patient ‘s acceptableness and conformity is hapless, particularly for long term therapy.

Suppositories can leak.

Drug soaking up from suppositories is slow in comparing to unwritten or endovenous disposal.

Different rectal drug preparations

Many preparations are developed for rectal usage and these include suppositories ( in the signifier of solid dose suspensions and emulsions ) , irrigations, gelatine capsules ( used for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, encapsulated in a soft gelatine capsules as a contrary micellar solution for rectal application ) 2, and clyster.

Enemas are aqueous solutions are suspensions intended for instillment into the rectal part for emptying of intestine and to handle microbic infections. Enemas are of two types – macro clyster ( 100ml or more ) and micro clyster ( & lt ; 100ml ) . Macro clyster are emptying clyster and micro clysters are retention clysters, may be used for antimicrobic action3.

1.3. Anatomy of Rectum and lower colon

The terminal 15- 19cm part of the big bowel is rectum ; it has a perimeter of 15-35cm. The rectal pH is around 7-8. The absorbent country of rectum is less when compared to

that of little intestine because the rectal surface country is 200-400cm2 compared to that 200m2 of little intestine, due to really much shorter surface country per unit length 4. Generally medicines for rectal bringing are better absorbed as decrepit alkaline solutions. For rapid soaking up of the medicine aqueous solutions are preferred instead than suppositories or suspensions. Rectal soaking up takes topographic point by active soaking up and for maximal keeping without any rectal urgency to resign bowels little volume of the fluid is recommended5.The diagram with a subdivision of colon is shown below in fig-1.

Fig.1. Section of colon. [ hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2007/08/01/health/adam/19220Largeintestine.html ] .

1.3.1. Physiological considerations of colon

1.3.1a. Intestinal colonic micro vegetations

The human colonic ambiance supports over 400 distinguishable species of bacteria with a population of 1011 to 1012 CFU/ml with largely Eubacterium, Bacteriodes etc6. The enzymes produced by these bacteria has broad spectrum of action, that being hydrolytic and reductive in nature, these enzymes are actively involved in many procedures, such as steroidal transmutation, protein and saccharide agitation, and devastation of mutagenic metamorphosis. Nitroreductase, azoreductases, and N-oxide and sulfoxide reductases are the most extended reductive enzymes produced by the enteric flora7.

1.3.1b. Colonic motility

Under the normal physiological conditions the colonic motility is described as irregular alternation of inactive, non-propagative, segmental contractions and infrequent propagative contractions that can be farther classified into high amplitude contractions ( & gt ; 100 mmHg ) and low amplitude contractions ( & lt ; 50 mmHg ) . Propagative contractions often originate in cecum and go uping colon and travel aborally over long sections of colonic walls and farther diminish in distal colon. The low amplitude propagative contractions happening is frequent than high amplitude propagative contractions, which are observed early in the forenoon and postprandial8, 9. More often these high amplitude propagative contractions are observed in diarrheal-predominant cranky intestine syndrome, less often in idiopathic constipated patients10.

1.3.1c. Ascending colonic volume

The go uping colonic volume was found to be 170A±40 milliliter as per the surveies conducted on healthy topics utilizing individual photon emanation computed tomography11.

Metronidazole

Metronidazole is a nitro-imidazole bactericidal agent chiefly used against obligate anaerobiotic bacteriums including Bacteroides, Clostridium spp. , and certain protozoal parasites like Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Blastocysistis hominis, Balantidium coli and besides some of the facultative anaerobes Gardnerella vaginalis and Helicobacter pylori16.

Gram negative anaerobes like Bacteroidess and fusobacterium species and the gm positive anaerobes like Peptosteptococci and clostridia species typically test sensitive to metronidazole. It is peculiarly used against Helicobacter pylori associated to duodenal ulcers and gastritis. Metronidazole is besides used against anaerobiotic intestine vegetation for the prophylaxis and for the intervention of Crohn ‘s disease where patients might develop complications of infections in bowel12. Metronidazole supports the giantism of aerophilic microbic vegetation of the big bowel by cut downing the figure of anaerobiotic microorganisms with acceptable profile of inauspicious effects13.

1.4.1. Anti microbic action of Metronidazole

Metronidazole as anti microbic agent was foremost introduced in 1959 for the intervention of Trichomonas vaginalis infections, and used later for invasive giardiasis and amoebiasis. Metronidazole is extremely effectual and demo rapid oncoming of action against anaerobiotic infections. Antimicrobial action of Metronidazole is chiefly due to the toxic intermediates which are produced during the decrease of the compound14. Interaction of these intermediates with deoxyribonucleic acid in protozoon inhibits nucleic acerb synthesis and at that place by exerts antimicrobic effects15. Mechanism of action of Metronidazole is shown in the fig-2.

Fig-2: Mechanism of action of Metronidazole. [ hypertext transfer protocol: //gsbs.utmb.edu/microbook/ch011.htm ]

1.4.2. Physico-chemical belongingss

Chemically metronidazole is 2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole-1-ethanol or 1- ( 2-hydroxyethyl ) -2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole. Its expression is C4H9N3O and its chemical expression is in the fig-3.

Fig-3: The chemical construction of Metronidazole. [ hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi? book=hp & A ; part=A4857 ]

Metronidazole is white to blanch xanthous coloured, odourless, crystalline pulverization. It is meagerly soluble in H2O, intoxicant and somewhat soluble in ether16.It is by and large stable in aqueous solutions of pH 2.0-7.017.

1.4.3. Metamorphosis of Metronidazole

Metronidazole is metabolised in the liver into two metabolites. These metabolites include 2-hydroxy-methyl-5-nitroimdazole-1-acetic acid ( HM ) and 2-methyl-1-2-nitroimidazole-1-acetic acid ( MAA ) . Hydroxy Flagyl is pharmacologically active with antimicrobic action and its authority is 30 % to that of Flagyl and the acetic acid metabolite of Flagyl is pharmacologically inactive but its activity is noticed in patients with nephritic disfunction, little sum of Flagyl is oxidised to acetamide18. The metabolization tract and chemical expressions can be seen in the figure 419.

Fig.4: Metronidazole metamorphosis.

Study aim

Metronidazole is commercially available in the signifier Tablets, Suppositories, Gels, and suspensions20. But metronidazole in the signifier of clyster is non available commercially. Olumide F et Al. 1976, described Flagyl in the signifier of clyster ( 2gm. of Flagyl in 200ml of normal saline ) for direction of terrible enteric amoebiasis21. No extended pharmaceutical informations about the preparation and stableness of the Flagyl clyster is available at this minute. Hence, the development of a metronidazole clyster was undertaken.

The present aim of the survey is to explicate Metronidazole keeping clyster in a suited aqueous media utilizing carbopol and tragacanth as suspending and viscosifying agents. Chemical stableness of the formulated clyster is analysed with an analytical method: high public presentation liquid chromatography ( HPLC ) and viscousness of the preparation is checked by Brook field viscosimeter.

Purpose

To explicate a metronidazole keeping clyster and analyze physico-chemically.

Materials and Method

Chemicals

Metronidazole ( 98.9 % pure ) used is a gift sample from Thrope Laboratories ( India ) Ltd, Mumbai. 2-methyl-5-nitro-imidazole is used as a standard dross. Cardopol ( 35 % w/v ) ,

tragacanth, methyl paraben, propyl paraben, tris buffer were purchased from Aldrich. The methyl alcohol and acetonitrile used were of high public presentation liquid chromatography ( HPLC ) grade along with distilled H2O ; other stuffs viz. potassium H phthalate ( KHP ) , sodium hydrated oxide ( NaOH ) , sodium chloride ( NaCl ) , potassium di-hydrogen phosphate ( KH2PO4 ) , acetic acid ( CH3C OOH ) , sodium ethanoate ( CH3COONa ) , sodium citrate ( Na3C6H5O7 ) and 0.1M hydrochloric acid ( HCl ) were of analytical quality.

Instrumentality

High Performance Liquid Chromatography setup and conditions

The liquid chromatography used was a Varian Prostar HPLC system ( Model 410 ) , equipped with an car sampling station consecutive manner system with a 20Aµl cringle. Detection is accomplished with a UV-Visible sensor. Integration and the system parametric quantities were controlled by Galaxy package running on a Personal computer.

Viscometer

The viscosimeter used was Brook field viscosimeter ( Model LVDV – II + PRO ) ; shows temperature ( C or F ) , viscousness, % graduated tables, shear rate, shear emphasis, velocity, % torsion, and spindle. Technical specifications include 0.01 to 200/rpm, viscousness scope of 1 – 6Million cP, with 4 supplied spindles.

2.3. Preparation of buffer solutions22, 23

2.3.1. Preparation of Phthalate buffer

Phthalate buffer was prepared by fade outing 20.42g of K H phthalate in 1000ml of H2O ( 0.1M ) . The pH was adjusted with 0.1M hydrochloric acid, 0.1M Na hydrated oxide. Preparation of different pH scopes of phthalate buffer is shown in the table-1:

Table-1: Preparation of phthalate buffer solutions pH 4-5.5.

pH

100ml of 0.1M KHP + Xml of 0.1M NaOH, 0.1M HCl.

4

0.2ml of 0.1M HCl

4.5

17.4ml of 0.1M NaOH

5

45.2ml of 0.1M NaOH

5.5

73.2ml of 0.1M NaOH

2.3.2. Preparation of Phosphate buffer

Phosphate buffer was prepared by fade outing 13.61g of K dihydrogen phosphate in 1000ml of H2O ( 0.1M ) . The pH was adjusted with 0.1M hydrochloric acerb solution, 0.1M Na hydrated oxide. Preparation of different pH scopes of phosphate buffer is shown in the table-2.

Table-2: Preparation of phosphate buffer solutions pH 6-8.

pH

100ml 0.1M KH2PO4 + Xml of 0.1M NaOH

6

11.2

6.5

27.8

7

58.2

7.4

78.2

2.3.3. Preparation of Acetate buffer

Acetate buffer was prepared by fade outing 13.6g of Na ethanoate in 1000ml of H2O ( 0.1M ) . The pH of the buffer was adjusted with 0.1M acetic acerb solution. Preparation of different pH scopes of ethanoate buffer is shown in the table-3.

Table-3: Preparation of Acetate buffer solutions pH 4-6.

pH

xml of 0.1M acetic acid

yml of 0.1Msodium ethanoate

4

847.0

153.0

5

357.0

643.0

6

52.2

947.8

2.3.4. Preparation of tris buffer

Tris buffer was prepared by fade outing 12.11g of tris ( hydroxymethyl aminomethane ) in 1000ml of H2O ( 0.1M ) . The pH of the buffer was adjusted with 0.1M hydrochloric acid. Preparation of different pH scopes of tris buffer is shown in the table-4.

Table-4: Preparation of Tris buffer solutions pH 7-8.

pH

100ml 0.1M tris ( hydroxymethyl aminomethane ) + Ten Master of Library Science of 0.1M HCl

7

93.2

7.4

84.0

8

58.4

2.4. Pre-formulation surveies

2.4.1. Pre-formulation solubility surveies

The chief job associated with developing any of the solution preparation of a compound is its aqueous solubility. Metronidazole is ill aqueous soluble drug24. For heightening the ill aqueous solubility of drug there are several options and these include pH use, co-solvency, wetting agents, chelating agents and emulsion formation25.

In the present experiment the solubility of Flagyl, 2-methyl-5-nitro-imidazole in H2O, buffered solutions of phosphate, ethanoate and tris in assorted pH scopes were determined by adding a weighed sum of drug to the dissolver by stirring with a glass rod at 20A±2oC. Excess sum of dissolver was added until the drug wholly dissolved in that dissolver.

2.5. Stability Indicating HPLC surveies

The stableness surveies are peculiarly demonstrated to analyze the quality, concentration and pureness of the pharmaceutical dose signifier. For showing stableness of pharmaceutical dose signifiers HPLC is conspicuously used. Szepesi et al.26 described some particular stability-indicating demands for HPLC and these include:

2.5.1. Stability- indicating check

The extremums of the drug substance and its decomposition merchandise should non elute at same clip ; any lessening in the active drug concentration should be detected by the method.

Stability-indicating pureness:

The declarations between the active constituent extremum and the next extremum should be higher to place any decomposition of the active constituent similar in its construction formed during different storage conditions.

2.5.3. The chief dross extremum ( s ) should be separated from degraded merchandise extremum ( s ) of different chemical construction, so that rating of pureness and check are carried out together.

2.5.4. The extremums of the debauched merchandises or secondary degraded merchandises formed by the decomposition of byproduct can besides be separated from other extremums.

2.6. Stability-indicating pureness:

Pre-formulation stableness surveies were conducted to find the stableness of Flagyl in H2O and assorted buffered pH ranges utilizing change by reversal phase high public presentation liquid chromatography ( HPLC ) .

All the solutions were stored at room temperature 20A±2oC for about 20 yearss in glass beakers and so analysed for stableness.

Consequences and Discussion

Solubility survey of Metronidazole

The aqueous solubility and pH solubility profiles for Metronidazole and 2-methyl-5-nitro-imidazole are shown in Table-7, 8, 9. Overall solubility of Metronidazole and 2-methyl-5-nitro-imidazole is determined at all pH values. Both Metronidazole and 2-methyl-5-nitro-imidazole exhibited high solubility at a pH scope a‰?4. For illustration, at room temperature the aqueous solubility of Metronidazole was 100mg/50ml, severally. Metronidazole, being a weak base, appears to fade out maximally at a pH a‰? 4.0.

Table-5: Solubility profiles of Metronidazole and 2-methyl-5-nitro-imidazole in assorted pH values ( pH4-pH8 ) .

Phthalate buffer

Solubility of Flagyl ( mg/ml )

Solubility of 2-methyl-5-nitro-imidazole ( mg/ml )

pH 4.0

100mg/55ml

100mg/80ml

pH 4.5

100mg/40ml

100mg/76ml

pH 5.0

100mg/35ml

100mg/70ml

pH 5.5

100mg/50ml

100mg/70ml

Phosphate buffer

Solubility of Flagyl ( mg/ml )

Solubility of 2-methyl-5-nitro-imidazole mg/ml

pH 6.0

100mg/40ml

100mg/80ml

pH 6.5

100mg/35ml

100mg/110ml

pH 7.0

100mg/50ml

100mg/75ml

pH 7.5

100mg/45ml

100mg/60ml

pH 8.0

100mg/35ml

100mg/75ml

Table-6: Solubility profiles of Metronidazole in ethanoate buffer pH 4-6.

Acetate buffer

Solubility of Flagyl mg/ml

Solubility of 2-methyl-5-nitro-imidazole mg/ml

pH 4.0

100mg/30ml

100mg/50ml

pH 5.0

100mg/30ml

100mg/80ml

pH 6.0

100mg/30ml

100mg/70ml

Table-7: Solubility profiles of Metronidazole in tris buffer pH 7-8.

Tris buffer

Solubility of Flagyl ( mg/ml )

Solubility of 2-methyl-5-nitro-imidazole ( mg/ml )

pH 7.0

100mg/50ml

100mg/80ml

pH 7.5

100mg/50ml

100mg/65ml

pH 8.0

100mg/45ml

100mg/80ml

Table-8: Solubility profiles of metroniadzole and 2-methyl-5-nitro-imidazole in H2O and notmal saline.

Solubility of Flagyl mg/ml

Solubility of 2-methyl-5-nitro-imidazole ( mg/ml )

Water at 25oC

100mg/50ml

100mg/70ml

Water at 40oC

100mg/30ml

100mg/45ml

Normal saline

100mg/30ml

100mg/105ml

Fig.5. Comparison of solubility profiles of Flagyl and 2-methyl-5-nitro-imidazole in Phthalate and phosphate buffer pH ranges:

: Impurity solubility profiles

: Metroniadazole

Fig.6. Comparison of solubility profiles of Flagyl and 2-methyl-5-nitro-imidazole in ethanoate buffer ( pH 4-6 ) and tris buffer ( pH 7-8 ) .

: Impurity

: Metronidazole

Fig.7.The consequence of assorted pH values on solubility of Flagyl

Solubility profile of Flagyl in phosphate and phthalate buffer

: Solubility profile of Flagyl in ethanoate buffer

: Solubility profile of Flagyl in tris buffer

High public presentation liquid chromatography method development

The new method developed in this present survey was really closely related to that of British Pharmacopoeia. British pharmacopoeia specifies reverse stage chromatography carried out utilizing unstained steel column ( 20cmA-4.6 millimeter ) packed with octadecylsilyl silicon oxide gel of atom size 10Aµm ( spherisorb ODS ) , utilizing a mixture of 30 volumes of methyl alcohol and 70 volumes of 0.01M K di-hydrogen inorganic phosphate as the nomadic stage with a flow rate of 1ml per minute and a sensing wavelength of 315nm.

To set up a new stableness bespeaking chromatographic nature of the HPLC method, we have changed the column to 5Aµm C18 ( 150 A- 4.60 millimeter ID, Phenomenex ) chromium steel steel column, packed with Sphereclone octadecylsilane ( ODS ) and an ( eluent ) Mobile stage to transport out the stableness analysis in the solution at ambient room temperature with a flow rate of 1.0ml/min and at a sensing moving ridge length of 325nm.

Each chromatographic tally required about 10 proceedingss and the elution clip obtained for Flagyl and the standard dross were different for different nomadic stages.

For methyl alcohol: KH2PO4 in the volume of 30:70v/v keeping times of drug and the dross was1.89min and 2.00min, for methyl alcohol: KH2PO4 in the volume of 80:20v/v keeping times were really narrow, like wise all the nomadic stage in different proportion showed a small keeping clip spread between drug and dross. When acetonitrile and Na citrate was used in the volumes of 10:90 v/v keeping clip spread of 2min was achieved. Elution of Metronidazole and 2-methyl-5-nitro-imidazole was achieved with a keeping clip of 3.19Min and 4.99Min severally.

The chromatograms obtained for metronidazole and 2-methyl-5-nitro-imidazole utilizing acetonitril and Na citrate ( 10:90 v/v ) as nomadic stages is shown in Fig.8.

A

Bacillus

C

Fig.8. Chromatograms of: ( A ) a solution incorporating Flagyl in ethanoate buffer pH 6 ; ( B ) solution incorporating 2-methyl-5-nitro-imidazole in ethanoate buffer pH 6 ; ( C ) solution incorporating Flagyl and 2-methyl-5-nitro-imidazole in ethanoate buffer pH 6. Chromatographic conditions, column: C18, 5Aµm packing stuff, 150A-4.6mm. Mobile stage: acetonitril-0.1M Na citrate, pH 8 ( 10:90 v/v ) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml min-1. Detection wave length: UV, 325nm.

Stability bespeaking solubility surveies

Metronidazole was observed to be comparatively stable in H2O and buffer pH conditions. The consequences obtained in our stableness bespeaking solubility survey showed an understanding with solubility and surveies conducted by Yunqi et al. , 200527.

Trial for lucidity and deposit

Deposit was observed when the H2O ( 400C ) solubilized Flagyl is stored for 20 yearss, this might be due to the ace impregnation of the solution during solubilization of the drug at high temperature. Rest of the solutions were free from atoms and deposit when observed against a black and white back land.

Solubility surveies of Flagyl and its standard dross ( 2-methyl-5-nitro-imidazole ) , indicates solubility of Flagyl was more in aqueous dissolvers including assorted buffered pH systems. These solubility profiles aid to understand the chemical nature ( mutual opposition ) of drug and the dross.

Solubility of Flagyl was observed to be high in ethanoate buffer ( 100mg/30ml ) than any other buffer solutions. Taking the solubility profiles and colonic pH ( 5.5-7 ) into consideration, acetate buffer of pH 6 was used to explicate clyster

4. Formulation of clyster

Our purpose to explicate keeping clyster is based on the surveies conducted by Nyman-Pantelidis et al. , 1994. There study proved low syrupy clyster high quality over high syrupy clyster in keeping and colonic spread28.

4.1. Preparation of metronidazole- tragacanth clyster

Metronidazole-tragacanth clyster was prepared by simple titration technique utilizing motor and stamp. Metronidazole keeping clyster prepared was an aqueous preparation with a viscousness of 6.00 certified public accountant, incorporating Flagyl in a buffered pH. The preparation includes tragacanth as suspending and viscocifying agent. Methyl paraben as a preservative and NaOH ( 0.1M ) was used to keep the pH of the preparation. Metrinidazole was dissolved in buffered solution and so added to tragacanth gum, while triturating methyl paraben was added and pH of the concluding preparation is maintained at pH-6 utilizing NaOH. The composing of the clyster prepared in the survey contains 1g of Metronidazole as shown in table 9.

Table: 9

Composition of metronidazole keeping clyster:

Ingredients

Quantity nowadays

Metronidazole

1.0g

Acetate buffer solution ( pH-6 )

300 milliliter

Tragacanth

1.0g

NaOH

Quantity sufficient to keep pH at 6

Methyl paraben

0.3g

Preparation of metronidazole- carbopol clyster

For the intervention of anaerobiotic infection of colon we have formulated Metronidazole as clyster utilizing carbopol, a high molecular weight polymer of acrylic acid cross linked to allyl sucrose. Carbopol increases the viscousness of the clyster and so assist in retaining in the colon for maximal efficaciousness of metronidazole29.

Metronidazole was dissolved in buffered solution 1.0g/300ml. This solution was added under changeless stirring to carbopol. Methyl paraben was dissolved in H2O and under

changeless stirring this mixture was added to the suspension. The pH of the concluding preparation is maintained at 6 by the add-on of NaOH. The composing of the clyster formulated is shown below in the table-10.

Table-10:

Composition of metronidazole keeping clyster:

Ingredients

Quantity nowadays

Metronidazole

1.0 g

Acetate buffered solution ( pH-6 )

300ml

Carbopol ( 35 % w/v )

5ml

NaOH

Quantity sufficient to keep pH at 6

Methyl paraben

1.5g

Storage of clyster for stableness and viscousness surveies

The formulated clyster were filled in 100 ml glass beakers and stored for 2 yearss at refrigerated conditions 40C, room temperature 200C and at accelerated conditions 400C and analysed for stableness and viscousness.

Stability surveies of the formulated clyster

Both the clyster were found to be stable for 3 yearss at assorted temperatures ( 2-100C, 25A±20C, 40A±20C ) . The chromatograms show no extremum of debauched Flagyl. Chromatograms of both the clyster is shown in the fig-9, fig-10.

A

Bacillus

C

Fig.9. Chromatograms of metroniadzole clyster formulated utilizing tragacanth: ( A ) clyster stored at 2-100C for 3 yearss ; ( B ) clyster stored at 25A±20C for 3 yearss ; ( C ) clyster stored at 40A±20C for 3 twenty-four hours. Chromatographic conditions, column: C18, 5Aµm packing stuff, 150A-4.6mm. Mobile stage: acetonitrile-0.1M Na citrate, pH 8 ( 10:90 v/v ) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml min-1. Detection wave length: UV, 325nm.

Calciferol

Tocopherol

F

Fig.10. Chromatograms of metroniadzole clyster formulated utilizing carbopol: ( D ) clyster stored at 2-100C for 3 yearss ; ( E ) clyster stored at 25A±20C for 3 yearss ; ( F ) clyster stored at 40A±20C for 3 twenty-four hours. Chromatographic conditions, column: C18, 5Aµm packing stuff, 150A-4.6mm. Mobile stage: acetonitrile-0.1M Na citrate, pH 8 ( 10:90 v/v ) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml min-1. Detection wave length: UV, 325nm.

Viscosities of the formulated clyster

The viscousness measurings for both rectal clyster were performed by Brook ‘s field viscosimeter, utilizing spindle 62 go arounding at 22 revolutions per minute. Both the rectal clyster were prepared with a viscousness of 6.0 cP utilizing tragacanth and carbopol. The viscousnesss of both rectal clyster were so analysed after storage for 2 yearss at 2-100C, 20A±20C, and 40A±20C severally and there consequences are shown in table-10.

Temperature and yearss

Viscosity of trgacanth clyster in centipoise ( cP )

Viscosity of carbopol clyster in

Centipoise ( cP )

Viscosity merely after readying ( room temperature )

6.16

6.19

2A±100C for 3 yearss

6.0

6.0

20A±20C for 3 yearss

6.0

6.0

400C for 3 yearss

4.8

4.5

Table.10. Viscosities of the formulated clyster after 3 yearss storage at assorted temperatures.

There was a small fluctuation of viscousnesss in the formulated clyster after their storage at assorted temperatures, and this fluctuation is seen particularly in clyster stored at accelerated temperature ( 40A±20C ) for 3 twenty-four hours. Because viscousness is reciprocally related to temperature, as temperature increases viscousness lessenings.

Trial for lucidity and deposit

Both the formulated clyster were clear without any atoms when observed against a black and white background. When the clyster are further analysed, phase separation was observed in the clyster formulated utilizing tragacanth and stored at 2-100C, 20A±20C, and 40A±20C.

Decision

The solubility surveies consequences indicate that Flagyl showed a good solubility at assorted pH degrees ( a‰?4.0 ) . Maximal solubility of Flagyl was shown in acetate buffer of pH 6 ( 100mg/30ml ) . The stableness surveies indicate that Flagyl was stable at all the pH ranges without any debasement.

The Metronidazole clyster formulated utilizing tragacanth and carbopol was chemically stable with no debasement when stored for a period of 3 yearss at 2A±100C, 20A±20C, 40A±20C severally. And there is no singular consequence on the viscousnesss and pH of the clyster when stored at these temperatures.

Future work

In the present survey stableness surveies were conducted for merely 3 yearss, the consequences would be more appropriate if the stableness surveies of the formulated clyster were carried for some more yearss.

The new methodological analysis developed for showing High Performance Liquid Chromatography bespeaking stableness surveies utilizing acetinitrile and Na citrate in the volumes of 10:90v/v should be validated.

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