Exploration Period. 1492-1607 Characteristics The first European Hagiographas about North America are written in this period. European Hagiographas describe the explorers’ travels and feelings of the continent and its Native people. Major Writers or Works Prose: Christopher Columbus. Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca. Bernal Diaz del Castillo. Thomas Harriot. and Samuel de Champlain. Oral narrations: Seneca legend “How America was discovered. “
•Colonial Period. 1607-c. 1765 Characteristics The Colonial period was dominated by Puritan beliefs and therefore literature of this period is normally historical. spiritual. or didactic. The most common genres were piece of lands. polemics. diaries. narrations. discourses. and some poesy. The first slave narrations were written at this clip. Imaginative literature was rare ; in some settlements. it was banned for being immoral. Major Writers or Works Poetry: Michael Wigglesworth. Anne Bradstreet. Edward Taylor.
Prose: John Smith. Roger Williams. Cotton Mather. Jonathan Edwards’ Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. Benjamin Franklin’s Poor Richard’s Almanacks. Narratives: Mary Rowlandson’s A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson.
•Revolutionary Period. 1765-1790 Characteristics This period begins with the passing of the Stamp Act in England and ends in 1790. The Revolutionary period normally refers to Hagiographas that are politically motivated. either in support of British regulation. in support of American nationalism and independency. or associating to the Constitution. Major Writers or Works Prose: Thomas Jefferson’s Autobiography. “Declaration by the Represent-atives of the United States of America. ” Thomas Paine’s Common Sense. Alexander Hamilton and James Madison’s Federalist Papers. Play: Royall Tyler’s The Contrast.
Verse and Ballads: “Yankee Doodle. ” “The Liberty Song. ” •Early National Period. 1775-1828 Characteristics During this period. a organic structure of distinctly American inventive literature began to emerge. As with the novel. poesy. essays. and studies besides began to boom. The publication universe and readership in America besides began to turn. Slave narrations were published with increasing frequence. This period is sometimes called the Federalist period after the conservative Federalists in power at the clip. Major Writers or Works Poetry: Phillip Freneau. William Cullen Bryant. Phillis Wheatley.
Prose: Judith Sargent Murray. Mercy Otis Warren. Washington Irving. Lydia Maria Child Narratives: Olaudah Equiano’s The Interesting Narrative of the Lfe of Olaudah Equiano. Novels: Hannah Webster Foster’s The Coquette. •Romantic Period. 1828-1865 Characteristics The Romantic period covers the period between Jacksonian democracy to the terminal of the Civil War. This period was the first major detonation of a distinctly American organic structure of literature ; for this ground. this period is besides referred to as the American Renaissance. Many of American literature’s most well-known authors emerged during this clip.
Readership increased significantly and the 1850s saw a figure of vastly popular novels. Issues and topics addressed in the literature of this clip ranged from the American individuality. to the bondage argument. to historical narrations. to poems and narrations inspired by romanticism. to prose plants analyzing national integrity. Major Writers or Works Poetry: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. Lydia Sigourney. Edgar Allan Poe. Walt Whitman’s Leaves of Grass. Emily Dickinson. Prose: Edgar Allan Poe. Nathaniel Hawthorne. Rebecca Harding Davis. William Lloyd Garrison. Narratives: Frederick Douglass. Harriet Jacobs Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl.
Novels: James Fenimore Cooper. Nathaniel Hawthorne. Catharine Maria Sedgwick. Herman Melville. Susan Warner. Maria Susanna Cummins’ The Lamplighter. Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin. William Wells Brown. Harriet E. Wilson. Play: George Aiken’s drama. Uncle Tom’s Cabin. based on Stowe’s novel. •The Age of Transcendentalism. 1836-1860 Characteristics Transcendentalism. though varied. investigated the relationship between nature. humanity. society. and the Godhead.
Major Writers or Works Prose: Ralph Waldo Emerson’s “Nature. ” “Self-Reliance. ” and “The American Scholar. ” Margaret Fuller’s “Woman in the Nineteenth Century. ” Henry David Thoreau’s Walden. Bronson Alcott. •Realism. 1865-1900 Characteristics The post-Civil War period was an epoch of increased industrialisation and urbanisation as the state attempted to retrieve emotionally. culturally. and politically from the wake of the war.
Though there were still elements of romanticism. this period was considered realistic in its accent on unidealized and true word pictures. Major Writers or Works Poetry: Walt Whitman. Paul Laurence Dunbar. Emily Dickinson’s poems published posthumously. Prose: Sarah Orne Jewett. Mary E.
Wilkins Freeman. Zitkala-Sa. Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s “The Yellow Wallpaper. ” George Washington Cable. Kate Chopin. Novels: Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. William Dean Howells. Bret Harte. Louisa May Alcott’s Little Women. Henry James. Helen Hunt Jackson’s Ramona. Frances E. W. Harper’s Iola Leroy. •Naturalism. 1900-1914 Characteristics An outgrowth of pragmatism. naturalism claimed to give an even more realistic and unblinking word picture of modern-day life. Naturalism was characterized by a pessimistic position of humanity and human being.
Major Writers or Works Prose: Frank Norris. Jack London. Stephen Crane. Hamlin Garland. Novels: Frank Norris’ McTeague. Theodore Dreiser’s Sister Carrie. Jack London’s The Sea-Wolf. Stephen Crane’s Maggie: a Girl of the Streets. •Modern Period. 1914-1939 Characteristics A period in British and American literature crossing the old ages between WWI and WWII. Works in this period reflect the altering societal. political. and cultural clime and are diverse. experimental. and untraditional.
Major Writers or Works Poetry: Robert Frost. Carl Sandburg. Wallace Stevens. William Carlos Williams. T. S. Eliot. Edna St. Vincent Millay. e. e. Edward Estlin Cummingss. H. D. Novels: Edith Wharton. Willa Cather. Sherwood Anderson. John Dos Passos. F. Scott Fitzgerald. William Faulkner. Sinclair Lewis. John Steinbeck. Ernest Hemingway. Play:
Eugene O’Neill’s The Emperor Jones. Susan Glaspell’s. Trifles. Clifford Odets. •Harlem Renaissance. 1920s and 1930s Characteristics The Harlem Renaissance was the first major burgeoning of ocular. literary. and executing humanistic disciplines by African Americans concerned with Afro-american life. art. civilization. and political relations. The influence of the Harlem Renaissance remained strong for the balance of the twentieth century.
Major Writers or Works Poetry: Langston Hughes. Countee Cullen. James Weldon Johnson. Claude McKay. Prose: W. E. B DuBois. Jean Toomer. Novels: Zora Neale Hurston. Nella Larsen. Passing. Jessie Redmon Fauset. James Weldon Johnson. Claude McKay. Play: Randolph Edmonds. Langston Hughes.
•Lost Generation. 1920s Characteristics After WWI. a group of American authors grew progressively disillusioned by. and immune to. what they saw as lip service in dominant American political orientation and civilization. Many of these authors left America in hunt of a more artistic life in London or Paris. Major Writers or Works Poetry: Ezra Pound. T. S. Eliot. Prose: Gertrude Stein. T. S. Eliot. Novels:
F. Scott Fitzgerald. Ernest Hemingway’s The Sun Besides Rises. •Beat Writers. 1950s Characteristics Beat Writers’ authorship was by and large anti-traditional. anti-establishment. and philistine. Major Writers or Works Poetry: Allen Ginsberg’s Howl. Lawrence Ferlinghetti. Prose: Gertrude Stein. T. S. Eliot. Novels: William Burroughs. Jack Kerouac’s On the Road. •Postmodern or Contemporary. 1940-present Characteristics In British and American literature. the postmodern period refers to literature written after WWII.
The postmodern period reflects anxiousnesss refering. and reactions to life in the twentieth century. Postmodern plants are frequently extremely experimental and anti-conventional. Major Writers or Works Poetry: Sylvia Plath. Marianne Moore. Robert Penn Warren. Anne Sexton. Gwendolyn Brooks. Adrienne Rich. Philip Larkin. Prose: Eudora Welty. Raymond Carver. John Cheever. Alice Walker.
Novels: Saul Bellow. Ralph Ellison. John Updike. Kurt Vonnegut. Jr. . Richard Wright. Thomas Pynchon. E. L Doctorow. James Baldwin. Toni Morrison. Play: Edward Albee. Arthur Miller. Tennessee Williams. Lorraine Hansberry. August Wilson. David Mamet.