Another theory on where all the antimatter is is that matter and antimatter simply escaped and avoided each other in the few seconds after the Big Bang. After they escaped each other they simply formed their counterparts in very distant locations so as not to hit each other. But if these two did escape each other they would have to be extremely far apart because any little collision between matter and its counterpart would result in the creation of gamma rays. If a galaxy and an anti-galaxy collided the result would be very dramatic and large, but even to this day we have not seen something like this. There are many far out places in the universe that we have not reached and may never reach, so this theory is rather questionable because of the size of the universe and its expanse (Gefter, Antimatter). Along with these theories there had to exist some way in which antimatter and matter could somehow exist. In 1966 Andrei Sakharov brought into play some of the explanations or reasons as to why there was such a large imbalance in matter and antimatter. Sakharov came up with three reasons. The first reason was that the protons must have decayed extremely slow. Mastin states that “for all the protons in the Earth, fewer than a bread crumb’s worth should have decayed so far.” Secondly, Andrei believed that the way the universe cooled after the Big Bang was another factor in this imbalance. Lastly, he also thought that there should have been specific measurements in the difference of matter and antimatter. (Mastin) To answer these various mysteries, many organizations are undergoing experiments to try and understand antimatter and its properties. The most notable experimenter would be CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. CERN alone has nine different accelerators all varying in task and job. Each one of these machines has taken many years to build and fund due to their nature and behavior. CERN is home to the Large Hadron Collider and the Antiproton Decelerator(CERN). The Antiproton Decelerator receives a beam of protons from the Proton Synchrotron, another one of CERN’s many accelerators, and then shoots that beam into a piece of metal which then creates antiprotons. After these particles of antiprotons are made they tend to move in random directions making them hard to use(CERN). The job of the Antiproton accelerator is to make these particles manageable and into a low-energy beam (CERN). This low- energy beam can then be used to make antimatter. The Large Hadron Collider is a 27 kilometer device made of superconducting magnets. To this day it is the largest and strongest particle accelerator(CERN). Once the Large Hadron Collider receives the beam of antiprotons they travel close to the speed of light throughout the collider. The magnets then guide the beam throughout the collider and force them to collide(CERN). This collision is what leads to the actual creation of antimatter. CERN had two successful attempts with this project. The first one was in 2002 when the ALPHA team had successfully been able to make and trap 38 antihydrogen atoms for 172 milliseconds. Another attempt that proved successful took place on May 6, 2011(Seeker). This experiment managed to keep 1000 antimatter atoms from annihilating themselves for more than 16 minutes (Seeker). This was a great accomplishment because the time before they had only managed to keep them in this state for a few hundred seconds which was not enough to actually study them. Another project by CERN in 2015 proved successful when scientists were able to store antiproton particles. The antiproton particles were still in perfect condition by the next year. These particles had survived a whole year and were only released because there had to be maintenance done to the machines(Pandolfi). No other group or person to their knowledge had been able to do something of this difficulty. It is difficult to be successful in these experiments because whenever antimatter and matter come in contact they automatically annihilate each other because they are opposites. Probably the most surprising thing about these experiments is the cost of them. According to numerous sources, antimatter is the most expensive substance to make, costing a total of $6.25 trillion per gram. This is many times the price of Californium, a rare metal that is not found on earth naturally, which costs $27 million per gram (Turkeli). CERN’s project is just one of numerous going on throughout the world. Another recent experiment that took place in Japan discovered something shocking about neutrinos and may have taken a step forward in answering the mystery of why there is so much matter in the universe. This experiment took place at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex near Tokyo(Kyodo). This experiment started by ejecting 100 trillion neutrinos and just as many antineutrinos towards the Super-Kamiokande facility which was 183 miles away(Kyodo). To clarify the importance of this experiment the Japan Times explain that “Neutrinos, which have almost no mass, pass easily through matter. During flight, they oscillate between three forms: electron, muon and tau neutrinos.” Kyodo from the Japan Times also states “,At Super-Kamiokande, the researchers examined particles that transformed from muon neutrinos to electron neutrinos, and found there were 32 such neutrinos but only four such antineutrinos.” All this means that at the Japanese facility, the matter particles tended to switch back and forth more than the antimatter particles. That would lead the scientists to believe that they were closer to solving the mystery about this asymmetry between the two. Lastly, there are various other interesting propositions about the future with antimatter. Although most of them are theoretical there is still a possibility of them becoming true with the advancements being made by scientists. Two constantly discussed propositions are those of using antimatter in space shuttles and bombs. Although the idea of antimatter bombs is intriguing it is very unlikely for numerous reasons. For one thing antimatter is extremely expensive. Rolf Landua a scientist at CERN said that the cost would be more than millions of billions of dollars because of the astronomical price of just a gram(Gefter, What). Another reason this would be unlikely is because there is just not enough of it. Scientist Landua also said that “If you add up all the antimatter we have made in more than 30 years of antimatter physics here at CERN, and if you were very generous, you might get 10 billionths of a gram.” This number is incredibly small and not nearly enough to cause any catastrophic damage(Gefter, What). Now for space shuttles. NASA has already come up with ideas on why this idea is possible but is still out of our reach.Up to this point antimatter has been seen as the most potent fuel in the world, passing nuclear energy (Dunbar). Normally, human missions would use chemical fuel which is much less earth friendly and costly at large numbers. Building a space shuttle that uses antimatter energy would be less costly due to the weight of the shuttle and the launch. Dunbar explains how antimatter in a space shuttle would work by using the energy made from matter and antimatter annihilating each other on contact. The complications that come with this are the damage of gamma rays, funding , and large sum of antimatter needed. Gamma rays are known to be very dangerous because of the way they tear apart cells and penetrate matter(Dunbar). Gamma rays also release radiation which could be dangerous to the astronauts aboard. The price of both the equipment needed for the shuttle and the antimatter itself would be an extremely large number and would require lots of funding. To put in perspective Dunbar specifies that the number of antimatter produced to this day is not even enough to create anything beyond the spark of a match so the amount needed for a rocket would have to be huge. Antimatter powered space shuttles might seem like a promising topic but the problems surrounding them would be harder to surpass than the actual benefits.