Art Of Living Essay, Research Paper
An August, 1996, series in the San Jose Mercury News by newsman Gary Webb linked the beginnings of cleft cocaine in California to the Contrass, a guerilla force backed by the Reagan disposal that attacked Nicaragua & # 8217 ; s Sandinista authorities during the 1980s. Webb & # 8217 ; s series, & # 8220 ; The Dark Alliance, & # 8221 ; has been the topic of intense media argument, and has focused attending on a foreign policy drug dirt that leaves many inquiries unanswered.
This electronic briefing book is compiled from declassified paperss obtained by the National Security Archive, including the notebooks kept by NSC adjutant and Iran-contra figure Oliver North, electronic mail messages written by high-level Reagan disposal functionaries, memos detailing the contra war attempt, and FBI and DEA studies. The paperss demonstrate official cognition of drug operations, and coaction with and protection of known drug sellers. Court and hearing transcripts are besides included.
Particular thanks to the Arca Foundation, the Ruth Mott Fund, the Samuel Rubin Foundation, and the Fund for Constitutional Government for their support.
Documentation of Official U.S. Knowledge of Drug Trafficking and the Contras
Evidence that NSC Staff Supported Using Drug Money to Fund the Contras
U.S. Officials and Major Sellers:
Jos? Bueso Rosa
Testimony of Fabio Ernesto Carrasco, 6 April 1990
National Security Archive Analysis and Publications
Click on the papers icon next to each description to see the papers.
Documentation of Official U.S. Knowledge of
Drug Trafficking and the Contras
The National Security Archive obtained the hand-written notebooks of Oliver North, the National Security Council adjutant who helped run the contra war and other Reagan disposal covert operations, through a Freedom of Information Act case filed in 1989. The notebooks, every bit good as declassified memos sent to North, record that North was repeatedly informed of contra ties to drug trafficking.
In his entry for August 9, 1985, North summarizes a meeting with Robert Owen ( & # 8221 ; Rob & # 8221 ; ) , his affair with the Contrass. They discuss a plane used by Mario Calero, brother of Adolfo Calero, caput of the FDN, to transport supplies from New Orleans to contras in Honduras. North writes: & # 8220 ; Honduran DC-6 which is being used for runs out of New Orleans is likely being used for drug tallies into U.S. & # 8221 ; As Lorraine Adams reported in the October 22, 1994 Washington Post, there are no records that corroborate North & # 8217 ; s later averment that he passed this intelligence on drug trafficking to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration.
In a July 12, 1985 entry, North noted a call from retired Air Force general Richard Secord in which the two discussed a Honduran weaponries warehouse from which the Contrass planned to buy arms. ( The Contras did finally purchase the weaponries, utilizing money the Reagan disposal in secret raised from Saudi Arabia. ) Harmonizing to the notebook, Secord told North that & # 8220 ; 14 M to finance [ the weaponries in the warehouse ] came from drugs. & # 8221 ;
An April 1, 1985 memo from Robert Owen ( code-name: & # 8220 ; T.C. & # 8221 ; for & # 8220 ; The Courier & # 8221 ; ) to Oliver North ( code-name: & # 8220 ; The Hammer & # 8221 ; ) describes contra operations on the Southern Front. Owen tells North that FDN leader Adolfo Calero ( code-name: & # 8220 ; Sparkplug & # 8221 ; ) has picked a new Southern Front commanding officer, one of the
former captains to Eden Pastora who has been paid to desert to the FDN. Owen reports that the functionaries in the new Southern Front FDN units include “people who are questionable because of past injudiciousnesss, ” such as Jos? Robelo, who is believed to hold “potential engagement with drug running” and Sebastian Gonzalez, who is “now involved in drug running out of Panama.”
On February 10, 1986, Owen ( & # 8221 ; TC & # 8221 ; ) wrote North ( this clip as & # 8220 ; BG, & # 8221 ; for & # 8220 ; Blood and Guts & # 8221 ; ) sing a plane being used to transport & # 8220 ; human-centered assistance & # 8221 ; to the Contrass that was antecedently used to transport drugs. The plane belongs to the Miami-based company Vortex, which is run by Michael Palmer, one of the largest marihuana sellers in the United States. Despite Palmer & # 8217 ; s long history of drug smuggling, which would shortly take to a Michigan indictment on drug charges, Palmer receives over $ 300,000.00 from the Nicaraguan Humanitarian Aid Office ( NHAO ) & # 8212 ; an office overseen by Oliver North, Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs Elliott Abrams, and CIA officer Alan Fiers & # 8212 ; to ferry supplies to the Contrass.
State Department contracts from February 1986 item Palmer & # 8217 ; s work to transport stuff to the Contrass on behalf of the NHAO.
Evidence that NSC Staff Supported Using Drug Money to Fund the Contras
In 1987, the Senate Subcommittee on Narcotics, Terrorism and International Operations, led by Senator John Kerry, launched an probe of allegations originating from studies, more than a decennary ago, of contra-drug links. One of the incidents examined by the & # 8220 ; Kerry Committee & # 8221 ; was an attempt to deviate drug money from a counternarcotics operation to the contra war.
On July 28, 1988, two DEA agents testified before the House Subcommittee on Crime sing a sting operation conducted against the Medellin Cartel. The two agents said that in 1985 Oliver North had wanted to take $ 1.5 million in Cartel payoff money that was carried by a DEA source and give it to the Contrass. DEA functionaries rejected the thought.
The Kerry Committee study concluded that & # 8220 ; senior U.S. policy shapers were non immune to the thought that drug money was a perfect solution to the Contras & # 8217 ; funding problems. & # 8221 ;
U.S. Officials and Major Sellers
In June, 1986, the New York Times published articles detailing old ages of Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega & # 8217 ; s coaction with Colombian drug sellers. Reporter Seymour Hersh wrote that Noriega & # 8220 ; is extensively involved in illicit money laundering and drug activities, & # 8221 ; and that an nameless White House functionary & # 8220 ; said the most important drug running in Panama was being directed by General Noriega. & # 8221 ; In August, Noriega, a long-standing U.S. intelligence plus, sent an emissary to Washington to seek aid from the Reagan disposal in rehabilitating his drug-stained repute.
Oliver North, who met with Noriega & # 8217 ; s representative, described the meeting in an August 23, 1986 e-mail message to Reagan national security adviser John Poindexter. & # 8220 ; You will remember that over the old ages Manuel Noriega in Panama and I have developed a reasonably good relationship, & # 8221 ; North writes before explicating Noriega & # 8217 ; s proposal. If U.S. functionaries can & # 8220 ; aid clean up his image & # 8221 ; and raise the prohibition on weaponries gross revenues to the Panamanian Defense Force, Noriega will & # 8220 ; & # 8216 ; take attention of & # 8217 ; the Sandinista leading for us. & # 8221 ;
North tells Poindexter that Noriega can help with sabotage against the
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