As described by the Cambridge dictionary 1Writing anonymouslyThere were various reasons why writers chose to write anonymously:To prevent readers comparing the book into the writer’s own lives  2Undermine their social standing 2May harm relationships  2Bronte sisters neighbours – motivation for characters in their books 2’Enigmatic’ view of being anonymous – work to seem more controversial 2Anonymity:Used to present thoughts considered past the pale for an individual of respectable social standing 2 Feedback that would have been a risk to claim – avoid heavy criticism 2Invisibility:needed to state something disagreeable and enabling discourse to be put in the public but separated from outcomes of its unacceptability 2Novelists who wrote under pseudonymsCharlotte BrontëThe eldest of the three Brontë sistersHer novels have transformed as works of art in English writing.She composed and published Jane Eyre under the pseudonym “Curer Bell”Anne BrontëThe youngest of the Brontë family.Both of her books were first distributed using the masculine pseudonym “Acton Bell”Emily BrontëBest known for her lone novel, Wuthering Heights which is now observed a classic in English writing. Emily was the third-eldest in the family. She composed under the pseudonym “Ellis Bell”Reason why I only highlighted these female novelists? 19th century, writing seen as a male-dominated professionThe Bronte sisters challenged this viewPublication under pseudonymsThe use of male pseudonyms by female writers was higher than male writers using female pseudonyms, why is that? Looking back to the Bronte sisters:The Brontë sistersNot to uncover their gender.  4Responses to their works – Emily’s Wuthering Heights as ‘brutal’ and ‘evil’  4Charlotte Brontë herself expressed that “we did not like to declare ourselves women, because – without at that time suspecting that our mode of writing and thinking was not what is called ‘feminine’ – we had a vague impression that authoresses are liable to be looked on with prejudice.”  4didn’t want their gender to be the basis of how their works were read.Steven King – article on Charlotte Bronte online:The novel Jane Eyre was rejected five times 3Commentators:Wordsworth – novel-written work not the best for a woman 3Robert Southey’s – “Literature cannot be the business of a woman’s life.” 5After a few rejections, still became an instant controversial hit. “… the pen names helped them open the door and at least get a reading.” said by Emily Auerbach (professor) from University of Wisconsin-Madison. 5The Bronte sisters had difficulty trying to succeed using their actual names. 5Jane AustenAlso distributed anonymouslyUtilised the pseudonym “A Lady,” = represented her femininity. 5A PioneerOne of the main female writers to gain approval. 5Writer Mary Ann Evansused a male pseudonym George Eliot  4prevent female stereotyping.  4″a superior possibility of being considered important.” 6Evans’ best known work: Middlemarch – one of the best books at any point composed. 4CONCLUSIONIt’s evident that male pseudonyms gave a way for these women to defeat the prejudices of the marketplace. 7 Yearning to gain authority and acceptance of their work. 7Challenges and difficulties in publishing their work and the need to use anonymity Influencing novels, writers, style of writing and many more aspects of novelsTheir novels have also become significant works in literatureWere not just left to waste.Given writers: liberty and privacy in their expressivity. 2Not publishing for recognition

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