Assignment 1:HTML and CSS MarkupWeb Technology Lab Group 72: Anna Claire favié and Tsungai ChipatoQuestions :HTML part1.Make sure you have read Paul Ford’s article “On HTML5 and the Group That Rules the Web” (see Reader on Canvas). What is, according to this article, the key difference between the HTML5 Recommendation published by W3C and the one published by the WHATWG?Answer:According to this article the key difference between the HTML5 recommendation published by W3C and the one published by WHATWG is that WHATWG (as well as W3C ) set out to define a new version of HTML called HTML5.

W3C accepted the HTML5, but W3C has been recommending certain things: taking WHATWG’s documents and changing them in ways that the WHATWG people don’t always like.2.Explain the difference between “the Internet” and “the World-Wide Web”. Provide links to the online resources you used (if any) to answer this question.Answer:The internet is a massive network of networks, it connects computers together on a global scale. The Web or World Wide Web is a way of accessing information of the internet.13.What are the three essential technologies that Tim Berners-Lee created to build the World-Wide Web on top of the already existing Internet infrastructure?Answer:Tim Berners-Lee is the principal creator of the Web, aswell as the director of the W3C, the 3 essential technologies he created were HTTP, HTML and URI.

4.Create a document with the text “Hello World!” in a word processor such as Microsoft Word or LibreOffice Writer. Save the file as a Web page or HTML document and inspect the HTML source using a plain text editor or a browser. Describe the key differences of the exported HTML against a regular HTML document created with a plain text editor. Hint: you could use the HTML tag with the proper escaping to show some example HTML source code generated by the word processor.Answer:

Hello world!

In the word processing .html it includeds style elements whereas the plain text generated .html has the word processing html it includes many unnecesssary tags, making it more complicated.

5.Find out which port (according to the current IANA assignment) is used for the following protocols:HTTPSSHFTPProvide a one line description of all three protocols, indicate with a link which authoritative source you have used for each description, and why you think your source is authoritative for this topic.Encode your answer in an HTML table with an id attribute set to protocolTable. The table should have three rows, one for each protocol.

It should have at least four columns: for each protocol, list the protocol name, port number, description and the authoritative source.Answer:HTTP: port 80, applitcation-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems.SSH: port 22, protocol for secure remote login and other secure network services over an insecure network.FTP: port 20, sharing files reliably and efficiently on the internet and within private networks.

2Look at the following two HTML paragraphs: This is an important point. This is another important point. 6.Explain why the HTML of the first paragraph should be preferred. Illustrate this with an example. Also, identify another pair of HTML constructs for which the same rationale holds. Answer: is an element that implies a meaning to a user as it is a style.

is semantic it describes the text that it surrounds,it defines important text, Thus, the first paragraph is prefered . for example: You could change in and in and the same rationale would hold.7.Identify one similarity and one difference between the HTML elements span and div.Answer:Difference: is an inline element (does not start on a new line) and

is a block element (always starts a new line) Similarity: both can be used to define a certain style8.List potential benefits of using CSS over HTML style markup. (Expected length: 7-8 lines)Answer:CSS can be used on multiple pages without being reloaded because of this it increases downloading speeds as well as data transfer over a network. Mark up elements are all classified whilst in HTML the codes are continuously interrupting the flow.

Changing the code is easier on CSS then on HTML, when wanting to change the code all you need is one line on the top of the code.CSS allows you to seperate your document content from document presentation. CSS increases your browser compatibility. 49.How would you expect a Web browser to render an emphasized word (i.e.

, included in an em element) in a paragraph with an italic font style? Check whether your browser behaves according to your expectation.Answer:The word would be printed in italic, which is what we had expected10.Pick two web browsers from the list below. What are in your view the key differences between the two browsers?Apple SafariGoogle Chrome (or Chromium on Debian Linux)Microsoft Edge or Internet ExplorerMozilla Firefox (or Iceweasel on Debian Linux)Opera Web BrowserAnswer:SafariChromeSafari syncs only to devices that have safari: Macs and IOS devices.Chrome only syncs with devices who have chromeOnly updated yearlyConstantly updated: more improvedOnly browser on Mac that will allow Netflix to be played in 1080p HDOn Chrome Netflix is only allowed a maximum of 720pReferences:1see source 2see sourcce 3see sourcce 4see sourcce Questions :CSS part1.

Read the article by Axel Schmetzke, (2001),”Web accessibility at university libraries and library schools” (See Reader on Canvas). Schmetzke found that the most prevalent accessibility error is not having ALT texts for images. With which WCAG guideline does this correspond?Answer:With the guidline that they want to make sure that the documents are clear and simple.2.The Web Accessibility checker ‘Bobby’ that Schmetzke used has been taken offline, but its predecessor WAVE can be found online. Run the tool on a website you think should be accessible. Briefly write down your key observationsAnswer:We thought the website:https://www.wikipedia.

org should be accessible for everyone thats why we thought to check it. With the results shown below:resultsThis is what came out. Surprisingly there were only 3 errors, which is very good because that means users won’t experience a lot of errors. One error for instance was: A form does not have a corresponding label, this means that the function of that form control might not be represented to screen reader users. Overall besides the small errors this website is very accessible to everyone.3.Acquaint yourself with principles of color contrast, e.

g. through the Color Contrast Check. Test three color combinations and write a short report of the results and how these should be interpreted.Answer:For colour color contrast we test different combinations of colours with their background colour and foreground colour to determine whether there is enough contrast provided in order for people who have color defects to view them without any strain. The colours we tested are as follows :ColourForgroundBackgroundReadabilityWCAG 2 AAA1#1E1F04#E2E7E4YesYes2#0000FF#EACF00YesNO3#67CDFF#EACF00NONoAs shown above with the color: 1 is readable for both people with defects and those without and passes the WCAG 2 AAA standards. For the colour: 2 the text is readable for people who don’t have color deficits but not enough for people who have high color defects to read the text according to the WCAG 2 AAA standards. For the colour: 3 it is not readable enough for people who don’t have color defects and consequently for those who do.4.

Make sure you understand the difference between a Native app versus a (responsive) Web app. Discuss at least one advantage of native apps over web apps and vice versa.An advantage of native app over responsive is that they are available on a webstore so you are able to monetize that downloads of you app, whereas in the responsive apps, you cannot.A disadvantage of a native app is that a native app cannot be run on a device which does not use the same operating system whereas in a responsive app, they are able to be run on any device, regardless of the operating system.

55.Summarize the key multilingual issues that W3Cis addressing within the “Internationalization” activity. (Expected length: half page)Answer:The main goal of the W3C internationalization activity was to ensure that the W3C’s formats and protocols were usable worldwide in every language and in every writing system. However, due to this it raised several issues for web designers and developers.

The main multilingual issues that resulted consequently because of this were:It became challenging for people to make a web application that would allow people who spoke and comprehended different languages.As each language is unique and has different letters, special characters and symbols the W3C uses unicode which is a computing industry standard that is used for encoding representation, and handling of text expressed in writing systems in order to store all of these characters .6However, unicode neglects the aspect of storing the different characters in a different order so it does not ensure the canonical equivalence of the resulting sequences. Canonical equivalence means to have many forms or representations which must all boil down to a single standard value which is hereby known as the canonical value.7 This leads to the incorrect comparing, parsing and sorting of text.

In addition, the different writing systems require different text alignments and other typographic conventions which are not supported in the markup languages and style sheets. Some languages are read from right to left instead of left to right. For example Persian/Farsi, arabic and hebrew and the formats are different for dates and calendars in different regions. For example in the United states of America the date is written as MM/DD//YYYY vs in South America it is written as YYYY/MM/DD.Furthermore,different symbols and characters may have a different meaning, in a different region of the world which may cause incorrect handling of data. In addition, different languages uses different syntax, which as a result will cause translating a language from one to a another not as comprehensible. This is due to web applications being restricted to having an English based syntax.

6.What is the IP address of the server running the website at

nl? And the IP address behind the site running Explain how you found the answer. How could the results you find influence the web servers’ functionality?Answer: We found the results by looking on ping in our terminal. The IP address of http://www.cs. is : The IP address of http://www.few. is : As both of the web page’s IP addresses are the same, They are hosted by the same web server.

7.Look up information about the new protocol for IP addresses (IPv6, IP version 6). Describe the main features of this protocol and indicate what the reasons are to move from version 4 to version 6. (Expected length: 1/4 page)Answer: The main features of this protocol are:128 bit addresses (3.402823669×10³? addresses)A scheme for logically aggregating addressesFixed length headersA protocol for automatically configuring and reconfiguring your network.At the time that IPv4 was made the computers were larger, expensive and rare, it had enough supply for 4 billion IP addresses which had appeared be enough for the amount of computers available.

However as there were gaps in addressing, and consequently how networks routed trafficking the amount of IP addresses available were few.Due to this The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) created two solutions: Classless Internet Domain Router (CIDR) and private IP addresses.IPv4 address format had less bit addressable bytes 32 bit (4 bytes) address while IPv6 uses 128 bit (16 bytes). Which meant that with IPv6 there would be much longer addresses so it would be possible to technically overcome the IPv4 address depletion issues which included service features without having to rewrite the protocol. The advantages of IPv6 were that it had built in security features, a much stronger flow control and easier authentication functionality.

In addition IPv6 can service more users and contains simplified Header Structures which has lead to faster routing as compared to IPv4 which makes it easier to configure a machine when it first joins the network.898.What are MIME types? Name the most common subtypes of type text. Provide a link to the most authoritative source with the complete list.Answer:MIME stands for Multi-purpose Internet Mail Extensions. MIME types form a standard way of classifying file types on the Internet.

Internet programs such as Web servers and browsers all have a list of MIME types, so that they can transfer files of the same type in the same way, no matter what operating system they are working in.10 The most common subtypes of type text are:text/plain – text with no special formatting requirements.text/html – text with embedded HTML commandstext/csstext/javascript9.

Make sure you have read the blog post What Is A Web Server? (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. as described in the Reader on Canvas.

Knupp states that the GET method is the most ccanvasommon HTTP request method. Name at least one other HTTP request method and find out what the differences are between GET and the one you picked. Which authoritative source(s) have you used?Answer: We picked the method POST. The POST method requests that a web server accepts data of the message in order to store it. The difference between POST and GET is that the GET method takes information from the server and POST submits data to store it.10.

Most of the well-known HTTP web servers serve HTML and other content to end users. But behind the scenes, there are many HTTP servers that provide services for other web sites. To manage who is allowed to do what on these services, they often deploy keys: short sequences of characters that are used to uniquely identify you. We will use an example of such a web site in the assignments, for which your need a key.

So please go the page at and generate a key. Please record the value of the key generated as the answer to this question, so you can use it later in the assignments.Answer: Our key is: 95efb098References:5see source 6see source 7see source 8see source 9see source 10see source

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