Austria Essay, Research Paper
Thousands of old ages ago, the great vale of the Danube River was an of import tract for the folks who came to Europe from the E. Settled in prehistoric times, the cardinal European land that is now Austria was overrun in pre-Roman times by assorted folks, including the Celts. Traders besides came from the North, transporting goods to merchandise in Rome and Alexandria. The path from the North and the path from the E crossed at a topographic point in the Danube vale in the part now called Austria. A colony called Carnuntum grew up at this hamlets. Another, called Vindobona, was shortly established about 24 stat mis to the West. When the Romans took control of the Danube Valley, they set up strong garrisons at Carnuntum and Vindobona. But in the late A.D.300? s, Germanic folk from the E swept through Austria. After the autumn of the Roman Empire, of which Austria was portion, the country was invaded by Bavarians and Slavic Avars. By A.D.600, Slavs from the E had occupied all of modern Styria, Lower Austria, and Carinthia
Austria became a boundary line state of Charlemagne? s imperium in A.D 788. Carolus set up the first Austrian March in the present Upper and Lower Austria, to hold the inroads of the Avars. Colonization was encouraged, and Christianity ( which had been introduced under the Romans ) was once more dispersed energetically. After Charlemagne & # 8217 ; s decease ( 814 ) the March shortly fell to the Moravians and subsequently to the Magyars, from whom it was taken ( 955 ) by Emperor Otto. In 976, Otto II bestowed it as a separate feoff on Leopold, laminitis of the first Austrian dynasty. Emperor Frederick I raised Austria to a dukedom in 1156, and in 1192, Styria besides passed under Babenberg regulation. Soon the colony at Vindobona was renamed Vienna. Charlemagne? s imperium was divided among his grandchildren, and Austria became portion of the Holy Roman Empire. At that clip it was given the name of? sterreich ( land of the E ) .
From 1282 until 1918, the history of Austria is wholly tied to the history of the Hapsburg household. Rudolf I of Hapsburg was chosen King of the Germans in 1273. After a war with the King of Bohemia, Rudolf gave the dukedoms of Austria, Styria, and Carniola to his boies. In 1353, Rudolf IV took the rubric of Archduke of Austria.
In the 1500? s, Emperor Maximilian I arranged a matrimony between his boy and the girl of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain. Maximilian? s grandson became King Charles I of Spain in 1516, and, three old ages subsequently, was elected Holy Roman Emperor as Charles V. Until Charles V gave up his throne in 1556, he ruled over Austria, Spain, The Netherlands, much of Italy, and big ownerships in the Americas. Charles V gave Austria to his brother Ferdinand. Ferdinand besides had been elected King of Hungary and Bohemia in 1526. His household controlled Austria, Bohemia, and Hungary until the terminal of World War I in 1918.
After many internal wars from 1848 to 1866, Austria was really weak in 1867. Magyar patriots took advantage of Austria? s failing and forced Francis Joseph I to subscribe an understanding giving Hungary equal rights with Austria. In the new Austria-Hungary, frequently called the Dual Monarchy, the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary were united under one swayer. Foreign personal businesss, war, and the exchequer were combined for both states, but each had a separate national authorities.
The division of the authorities left the Slavic peoples in the imperium under the control of the German-speaking peoples of Austria and the Magyars of Hungary. The Slavs struggled to obtain the right to regulate themselves. The independent state of Serbia, South of Hungary, claimed to be the leader of the Slavic motion. On June 28, 1914, Serbian nationalists shot Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the nephew of Emperor Francis Joseph and inheritor to the Austrian throne. This set off World War I, in which Austria-Hungary joined with Germany and other Alliess to organize the Central Powers.
After the Cardinal Powers were crushed in World War I, Austria proclaimed itself a separate province, called German Austria, on November 12, 1918. Many Austrians wanted to do German Austria a federal province of the new German Republic. But the winning Allies announced that Austria and Germany would non be allowed to unify. The name of the state was changed to the Republic of Austria. Austria? s new boundaries were established by the Treaty of Saint Germain, which was signed in 1919.
After World War II, Austria was divided into American, British, French, and Russian zones of business. The fundamental law of 1920 ( a democratic fundamental law ) was declared to be in force once more, and the Austrians were allowed to put up a probationary authorities. To look into the power of Nazis recommending brotherhood with Germany, Chancellor Engelbert Dolfuss in 1933 established a absolutism, but was assassinated by the Nazis on July 25, 1934. Kurt von Schuschnigg, his replacement, struggled to maintain Austria independent, but on March 12, 1938, German military personnels occupied the state, and Hitler proclaimed its Anschluss ( brotherhood ) with Germany, annexing it to the Third Reich. In 1945, elections for a National Council and provincial assemblies were held, and the four busying powers recognized the new authorities. The busying powers held many negotiations seeking to pull up an Austrian pact of independency, but the Russians prolonged the business. Finally Austria concluded a province pact with the U.S.S.R. and the other busying powers and regained its independency on May 15, 1955. The United States, Great Britain, France, and Russia signed a pact to stop the Allied business of Austria. To obtain its freedom, Austria agreed to go a impersonal state. Austria joined the United Nations in 1955, the Council of Europe in 1956, and the European Free Trade Association in 1959.
On June 8, 1986, former UN Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim was elected to the ceremonial office of president in a run marked by contention over his alleged links to Nazi war offenses in Yugoslavia ( he was replaced by diplomat Thomas Klestil in 1992 ) . On Jan. 1, 1995, Austria became a member of the European Union. Despite the rank, it retained its rigorous constitutional neutrality and forbade the stationing of foreign military personnels on its dirt.
In 1998, Austria discussed the return of 100s of art objects now owned by Austria that had been confiscated by the Nazi government from their former, chiefly Jewish, proprietors. Deadly avalanches smitten several Austrian small towns in Feb. 1999, the worst avalanches in the Alps since 1970. In Aug. 1999, Austrian constabulary arrested Gen. Momir Talic, the highest-ranking Bosnian Serb military functionary, wanted by the UN on war offenses charges.
In Feb. 2000 the conservative People & # 8217 ; s Party formed a alliance with the reactionary Freedom Party, headed by J? roentgenium Haider. A patriot against in-migration, Haider had made several controversial comments praising some Nazi policies, which he had since recanted. His gradual rise to power? from 5 % in 1983 to 28 % in the October 1999 election? was credited to electors weary of decennaries of stasis under the regulation of the Social Democrats. The European Union condemned Austria & # 8217 ; s new alliance and froze diplomatic contacts, impeaching Haider of being a racialist, xenophobe, and a Nazi-sympathizer. Large presentations in Austria and throughout Europe followed. Haider did non fall in the authorities, but he was expected to exert influence from the out of boundss. At the terminal of February, nevertheless, he resigned from the party, claiming he would concentrate on his function as governor of the Carinthia state. Few inside or outside of Austria doubted that he would stay the distinction grise behind his party.
Austria is in the cardinal portion of Europe, and has no havens. Its neighbours are Germany, Switzerland, Hungary, Italy, Liechtenstein, Slovakia, Slovenia, and the Czech Republic.
Geography and Climate
Austria? s geographic co-ordinates are 47 20 N, 13 20 E. Its entire country is 83,858 sq. kilometer, its land country is 82,738 sq. kilometer, and its H2O country is 1,120 sq. kilometer. Relatively talking, it is somewhat smaller than Maine. Its boundary lines are 2,562 kilometers. The boundary lines are: Czech Republic 362 kilometer, Germany 784 kilometer, Hungary 366 kilometer, Italy 430 kilometer, Liechtenstein 35 kilometer, Slovakia 91 kilometer, Slovenia 330 kilometer, Switzerland 164 kilometer.
Few states in Europe have more mountains than Austria. The Alps cross Austria from the West to the E, covering the southern and cardinal parts of the state. The Danube Valley and the unfastened Vienna Basin are in the northeast portion of Austria. The mountains and hills are covered with trees, hayfields, and grazing lands. There are many specular lakes and green vales. Neusiedler Lake, sou’-east of Vienna on the boundary line between Austria and Hungary, covers an country of about 130 square stat mis. The scenery and clime in Austria are much like those of Switzerland. Austria has warm summers, cold winters, and plentifulness of rain.
Austria has sedimentations of salt, lead, talc, black lead, natural gas, and gypsum. It is the universe? s largest manufacturer of magnesite, and the 4th largest manufacturer of rough oil in Europe. Iron ore comes from sedimentations in the state of Styria. Austria? s coal sedimentations are about wholly lignite. This type of coal is non suited for gas or coke production.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
( Millions of Metric Tons )
Fuel 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
Coal 3.097 2.755 3.019 3.339 3.337
Natural Gas 3.734 3.709 4.010 4.308 4.184
Petroleum 9.010 9.096 8.825 8.818 9.250
Entire 15.841 15.560 15.854 16.465 16.771
% Change & # 8211 ; -1.8 % 1.9 % 3.9 % 1.9 %
Slightly smaller than Maine, Austria includes much of the cragged district of the eastern Alps ( about 75 % of the country ) . The state contains many snowfields, glaciers, and snowcapped extremums, the highest being the Grossglockner ( 12,530 ft. ; 3,819 m ) . The Danube is the chief river. Forests and woodlands screen about 39 % of the land. Austria has merely 1 % lasting harvests, and 23 % lasting grazing lands.
As mentioned before, woods cover 39 per centum of the land, and scientific direction one time produced much lumber. But, during World War II, the Germans cut down so many trees that lumber production was greatly reduced. Austria? s woods are an of import beginning of ships? supplies such as pitch, pitch, gum terpentine, and gum rosin. There has been some forest debasement caused by air and dirt pollution ; soil pollution consequences from the usage of agricultural chemicals ; air pollution consequences from emanations by coal- and oil-fired power Stationss and industrial workss and from trucks pass throughing Austria between northern and southern Europe.
Austria is one of the most of import beginnings of hydroelectric power in Europe. Its entire electric power production, from all beginnings, sums to more than 18,440,000,000 kilowatt-hours a twelvemonth.
Austria? s clime is temperate ; Continental, cloudy ; cold winters with frequent rain in Lowlandss and snow in mountains ; cool summers with occasional showers
Austria has a well-developed market economic system with a high criterion of life. As a member of the European Monetary Union ( EMU ) , Austria? s economic system is closely integrated with other EU member states, particularly with Germany. Austria? s rank in the EU has drawn an inflow of foreign investors attracted by Austria? s entree to the individual European market. Through denationalization attempts, the 1996-98 budget consolidation plans, and asceticism steps, Austria brought its entire public sector shortage down to 2.5 % of GDP required by the EU? s Maastricht standards. Cuts chiefly affect the civil service and Austria? s generous societal system, the two major causes of the authorities shortage. To run into increased competition from both EU and Central European states, Austria will necessitate to stress knowledge-based sectors of the economic system and deregulate the service sector, peculiarly telecommunications and energy.
Agribusiness. The agribusiness sector in Austria contributes 3.0 % of the GDP and employs an estimated 0.7 % of labour, as stated in the GDP/Employment by Sector of Origin tabular array. The cardinal primary nutrient harvests produced are barley, maize, murphies, soya beans, sugar Beta vulgariss and wheat. The primary meat merchandises are porc, beef, poulet, Meleagris gallopavo and lamb. The largest ( in value footings ) agricultural exports in 1998 were non-alcoholic drinks, cocoa merchandises, beef, pastry and prepared fruit. The entire value of agricultural imports in 1998 was $ 4,560.8 million.
Agriculture/Food: Production of Primary Crops
( Metric Tons )
Merchandise 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
BARLEY 1,184,350 1,065,188 1,082,800 1,257,800 1,211,600
MAIZE 1,420,640 1,473,662 1,735,568 1,841,681 1,573,000
POTATOES 593,720 724,426 768,873 676,872 663,000
Soies 104,946 31,121 26,763 33,000 43,400
SUGAR BEETS 2,560,580 2,885,807 3,131,307 3,011,921 2,930,000
WHEAT 1,255,120 1,301,310 1,239,723 1,352,281 1,341,800
Entire PRODUCTION 7,119,356 7,481,514 7,985,034 8,173,555 7,762,800
GROWTH RATE ( % ) & # 8211 ; 5.1 % 6.7 % 2.4 % -5.0 %
Real GDP Per Capita
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
( Millions of 1990 $ US ) 137,379 139,701 142,467 146,057 150,804
( Millions-Mid Year Average ) 8.060 8.100 8.130 8.130 8.130
Real GDP Per Capita
( 1990 $ US Per Capita ) 17,046 17,244 17,531 17,960 18,541
Gross Domestic Product
( Millions of 1990 $ ) Population
( Millions ) GDP Per Capita
( 1990 $ )
Country Rank 1997
GDP Rank 1997
Population Rank 1997 GDP
Austria 32 150,804 82 8.130 20 18,541
Austria is a democratic, federal democracy. The president is elected by popular ballot for a six-year term. With the understanding of the bulk of the National Council he appoints the Chancellor of the Exchequer, who is the caput of the authorities. The president besides appoints cabinet curates, upon the suggestion of the Chancellor of the Exchequer. The Chancellor of the Exchequer and his authorities are responsible to the National Council, the more of import of the two houses of Parliament. The 165 members of the National Council are elected for four-year footings. The upper house, the Federal Council, has 50 members who are chosen by the legislative assemblies of the states. A member of the Federal Council remains in office every bit long as the provincial legislative assembly, which chose him, stays in power. The provinces send in representatives in proportion to their population.
Each state has its ain fundamental law and authorities. The legislative assembly elects the provincial governor and members of his authorities. The states are divided into administrative territories, which in bend are divided into communes.
The population of Austria is 8,139,299, with a population growing rate of 0.09 % . The age construction is 0-14 old ages: 17 % ( male 702,261 ; female 666,310 ) , 15-64 old ages: 68 % ( male 2,792,484 ; female 2,713,397 ) , 65 old ages and over: 15 % ( male 478,071 ; female 786,776 ) . The birth rate is 9.62 births/1,000 population. The decease rate is 10.04 deaths/1,000 population. The sex ratio for the entire population is 0.95 males/females. Austria? s life anticipation at birth is 77.48 old ages ( male 74.31 old ages, female 80.82 old ages ) .
Austria has an unemployment rate of 7 % , since it enjoyed strong growing with low rising prices and low unemployment in 1998. Economic growing accelerated as the upturn in the broad European economic system increased exports of goods and services. High degrees of investing besides boosted growing as both Austrian and foreign-owned houses geared up to run into expected higher demand in Europe and increase incursion into former communist axis states to the E. Unemployment remained under 5 % & # 8211 ; one of the lowest in the EU & # 8211 ; without triping any upward force per unit area on rising prices. It merely rose to 7 % in the twelvemonth 2000.
The population of Austria is German 99.4 % , Slovene 0.4 % , and other 0.2 % . 78 % of Austrians are Roman Catholic, 5 % are Protestant, and 17 % are other.
98 % of Austrians are native German-speakers. The official linguistic communication of the state is German.
Customss and Traditions
Coffee imbibing is an of import portion of Viennese civilization. The traditional Viennese cafe has rather a long history, dating back to 1683. The formula has been played with for centuries, but for 300 old ages the Melange has remained the most popular local java. ( Viennese-style java is laced with pick and cinnamon. )
Another tradition is the Austrian Heuriger ( wine tap house ) , which began in 1784. Today, merely within the metropolis bounds of Vienna, over 800 households produce vino, and there are 100s of Heurigers.
Sports are a manner of life for many Austrians, who have long enjoyed what visitants have merely figured out in recent old ages. Their dramatic environment has encouraged one of the most sports-minded societies in Europe. Half the population of eight million people are enthusiastic skiers, and in the summer they love their watersports.
The literacy rate in Austria is 99 % because Austrian kids are required to go to school from ages 6 to 14. All kids start with the Volksschule. They attend for 4 old ages. After 4th class, pupils attend a secondary school.
Secondary schools come in two basic types: the Hauptschule and the Mittelschule. The Hauptschule offers a 4-year class to fix pupils for vocational schools ; Mittelschules offer an 8-year class to fix pupils for university or higher degree proficient schools. Students must go through an entryway test after Volksschule to go to a Mittelschule.
There are four sorts of Mittelschule:
1. Secondary school, with classs in Latin, Greek and one modern linguistic communication
2. Realgymnasium, which offers more scientific discipline, Latin, and one modern linguistic communication
3. Realschule, which emphasizes scientific discipline and two modern linguistic communications
4. Frauenoberschule, a miss? s school, where classs include place economic sciences and child care.
To travel on to university, pupils must go through a concluding test at the terminal of Mittelschule.
Austrians? life anticipation at birth is, for the entire population, 77.48 old ages. For males it is 74.31 old ages, and for females it is 80.82 old ages. The infant mortality rate is 5.1 deaths/1,000 unrecorded births.
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