Background of the research
Language as a system of communication is important as it assists humans to get a better interaction with each other. The communication, either spoken or written, is used to convey what they need to say and express what inside their mind. Humans use different expressions in different context. Yule (2002) defines that a consideration of how speakers manage what they want to say under who they’re talking to where, when, and by what circumstances is required. He adds that pragmatics is concerned with the study of meaning as communicated by a speaker and interpreted by a listener. As pragmatics has many objects to be studied, a movie is chosen as it occasionally reflects what happens in our life.
The purposes of this research are to describe the type of spatial deixis found in Stromberg’s Maleficent and to identify the function of intonation in spatial deixis found in Stromberg’s Maleficent. In this research, Maleficent is chosen as it contains many words or phrases in the utterance related to spatial deixis. The natural life of Maleficent is an interesting object to be observed as it has uniqueness compared with the daily life of common people.
Yule (1996) defines deixis as a technical term for one of the most fundamental things we do with expressions. ‘Pointing’ via language is the other importance, while deictic expression is any linguistic form to complete this ‘pointing’. By children, they are among the former structures to be spoken and can be used to signify people via person deixis (‘me’, ‘you’), or location via spatial deixis (‘here’, ‘there’), or time via temporal deixis (‘now’, ‘then’). These interpretations vary for their understandings, on the speaker and hearer sharing the same perspective. Deictic expressions have their most necessary uses in face-to-face interaction where utterances are easily recognized by the people present, yet may need a interpretation for someone not right there.
Yule (1996) adds that deixis is clearly a form of referring that is tied to the speaker’s context. The most basic difference between deictic expressions is being ‘near speaker’ versus ‘away from speaker’. In English, the ‘near speaker’, or proximal terms, are ‘this’, ‘here’, ‘now’. The ‘away from speaker’, or distal terms, are ‘that’, ‘there’, ‘then’. Proximal terms are usually interpreted in terms of the speaker’s location, or the deictic center, so that ‘now’ is generally understood as referring to some point or period in time that has the time of the speaker’s utterance at its center. Distal terms can simply denote ‘away from speaker’, but, in some languages, can be used to distinguish between ‘near addressee’ and ‘away from both speaker and addressee’. (Yule, 1996: 9-10).
While referring expressions can be interpreted with reference to features of the context of utterance, deictic expressions cannot be interpreted without the reference. Spatial deixis is one of the types of deixis. It is the idea of a speaker ‘pointing out’ something in space or time in order to draw the attention of the addressee to it is basic to both spatial and temporal deixis (Lyons 1977, Fillmore 1982b, Lakoff 1987). Birner (2013) adds that spatial deixis is employed to identify a location relative to the location of the speaker or addressee.
Yule (1996) states that in studying spatial deixis, it is important to consider that location from the speaker’s viewpoint can be set mentally as well as physically. Speakers briefly away from their home location will often continue to use ‘here’ to mean the (physically distant) home location, as if they were still in that location. Speakers also seem to be able to project themselves into other locations prior to actually being in those locations, as when they say ‘I’ll come later’ (= movement to addressee’s location). It is sometimes defined as ‘deictic projection’ and more technology lets us to control location.
Lakoff (1987) finds that there is a prototypical case of deixis from which other cases of deixis are derived. This is the protype case of deixis, the simple clause/sentence which fundamentally covers a deictic locative adverb (here/there): There’s Harry! He then lists and illustrates a number of non-central deictic constructions which are variations on the basic one:
1. perceptual (non-visual): there’s the phone
2. discourse: here’s the best bit
3. existence: there goes your last chance
4. delivery: there you go!
5. paragon: now there’s a nice one
6. exasperation: there he goes again
Birner (2013) believes that spatial deixis appears to cover a somewhat more complex range of situation than does personal deixis, potentially including current, past, and future locations of the speaker and/or adresse, movement toward or any frm such location. Cairns (1991) adds that deictic expression is attached to the utterance situation at the time and in the space in where it occurs.
The background of information is marked phonologically by increased intonation on the deictic expressions. Lakoff (1987) adds that intonation can be carried by the deictic this/that and here/there, whereas the existential ‘there’ e.g. ‘There’s a girl in my soup’, cannot bear intonation. The reason why the deictic carry intonation is that it is an intrinsic part of their pointing out function. They pick out a specific object or bounded space from its surrounding space in order to draw attention to it. For the purposes of intonation, Gibbon (1983) identifies:
1. simple deictic function – “provision of spatiotemporal orientation points for spatial matching and temporal synchronisation of the indexical co-ordinate systems of speaker and addressee”.
2. demonstrative function – “attention-drawing to some of these orientation points”