On December 25, 2009, Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, a Nigerian Born rider aboard an international flight into Detroit, Michigan, attempted to light an jury-rigged explosive device. Abdulmutallab ‘s attempts were unsuccessful and he was subdued by riders and crew in flight. This incident became known as the Christmas Day Bombing and Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab as the Underwear Bomber.
The flight originated in Amsterdam with its concluding finish being Detroit. Abdulmutallab was working with al-Queda in the Arabian Peninsula ( AQAP ) and had been trained and instructed in Yemen on how to transport out his panic onslaught ( Novak, 2010 ) . He was instructed on how to light the explosive and to wait until the airliner was over U.S.
dirt before exploding the device, which was concealed in Abdulmutallab ‘s underclothes.Passengers stated that as the airliner approached Detroit, Abdulmutallab went to the toilet of the plane complaining of an disquieted tummy. When Abdulmutallab returned to his place 20 proceedingss subsequently, he pulled a cover over himself and attempted to light the device in his bloomerss ( Shane & A ; Lipton, 2009 ) . The explosive device consisted of 80 gms of powdery Peritrate tetranitrate ( PETN ) chemical that would be assorted with acid from a syringe.
The mixture of the acid and PETN was supposed to detonate but it did non explode decently, due to a millimetre of separation between the mixtures.The other riders were alerted to Abdulmutallab ‘s attempts by loud starting sounds and fume from his bloomerss and fires on his vesture and the wall following to his place. Abdulmutallab was tackled by another rider who so saw an object combustion in his bloomerss.
The rider extinguished the device with his custodies. Finally, the crew members and riders handcuffed Umar with fictile ties and confined him to a place in the concern category subdivision of the aircraft ( Shane & A ; Lipton, 2009 ) . The flight landed safely at Detroit ‘s Wayne airdrome and Umar was turned over to FBI agents.
Background and Issues of the Underwear Bomber
Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab is a Nigerian born Islamist bomber who confessed to trying to bomb a Northwest air hose Flight 253, en path to Michigan from Amsterdam while onboard. Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab hid the explosives that he intended to utilize in his underwear giving him the rubric, ‘the underwear bomber ‘ . He acquired the device and the needful preparation from the Al-Qaeda members in Arabia. Despite neglecting to bomb the aircraft, he pleaded guilty of trying to utilize arms of mass devastation and was sentenced on early February 2012 to life imprisonment without the likeliness of early word. The tribunal opinion over the instance found out that Anwar organized the onslaught that Abdulmutallab attempted in December 2009.Anwar is an American Born prima figure of Al-Qaeda in Yemen. Anwar instructed Abdulmutallab to bomb an American airliner ( Seib & A ; Janbek, 2011 ) .
He grew up in a Nigeria ‘s affluent household being the boy of one of the wealthiest persons in Africa. He went for his degree class in Yemen at a university known as Iman University. He besides attended talks at San’a Institute for the Arabic Language besides in Yemen. Abdulmutallab received a mechanical technology grade from a university in London in the twelvemonth of 2005. Abdulmutallab has a strong belief in the Islamic faith and particularly a belief that go throughing off while contending Jihad, for most Muslims this is the most effectual manner of doing it to paradise. Jihad is the Muslim ‘s holy war in resistance to the heathens. Other beginnings indicate that this belief has been the chief drive force for most suicide bombers. The self-destruction bombers are non afraid of deceasing because they will acquire to paradise for contending heathens as such is their belief ( Bennett & A ; Leibsohn, 2011 ) .
Abdulmutallab spent most of his clip making his Islamic group ‘s activities besides his category work, which is the ground why he graduated with the 2nd lowest mark after his surveies. He headed the London school ‘s Islamic society as the president. The Department of Homeland Security states that Abdulmutallab is the 4th leader of the Islamic society in the London school charged with holding a connexion to a terrorist group or plotting a terrorist onslaught. Abdulmutallab organized and attended a conference early in the twelvemonth of 2007 in which his purpose was to turn to political figures, attorneies in human rights and other persons in support of Jihad.By so, the counter intelligence and other security forces like the fatherland security spotted Abdulmutallab and suspected multiple communications between him and major Islamic extremists. In early 2009, Abdulmutallab tried to come in Britain in a fabricated claim of go toing a school in Britain ; the British governments denied his petition and set his name on a ticker list to forestall illegal in-migrations but non in suspect of security issues. The national security functionaries spotted Abdulmutallab once more but in a different state.
Intelligence functionaries suspected his connexion with Al-Qaeda functionaries in Yemen because of his want to remain in Yemen even after dropping his class and go forthing the school for a month. In December 2009, Abdulmutallab travelled to Shabwah state to form the onslaught with Al-Qaeda functionaries who equipped him with the explosives ( Boucek & A ; Ottaway, 2010, p. 33-35 ) .On December 25, 2009, Abdulmutallab travelled to Amsterdam from Ghana, where he boarded Flight 253 belonging to Northwest Airlines destined for Detroit, spent near to 20 proceedingss in the aeroplane ‘s bathroom and detonated the explosives upon returning to his place. The riders extinguished the fire on the plane. He admitted to holding detonated an explosive device even to the security functionaries and was taken to tribunal afterwards.
Research and Development Plan of the Undertaking
Our Group has developed a multi-layers, three hundred 60s degree point of position research and development program.
The research will establish on the points of position that show below:Identify intelligence and security failures associated with underwear bomber terrorist onslaught.Identify information sharing that occurred before and after the terrorist onslaught, or failures associated with information sharing. Identify policies that allow for information sharing that have occurred since 9/11.Identify National Security and Homeland Security policies that now impact visa policies, flight processs and policies, and bar steps now being taken by the intelligence community and jurisprudence enforcement forces in order to protect the fatherland and national security.Identify if terrorist groups are seeking to develop methods to forestall these extra steps being taken.Identify actions being taken to forestall extra terrorist onslaughts associated with methods the underwear bomber used.Identify spreads within research that require extra information to back up research undertaking or analytical decisions.Discuss how strategic intelligence affects national and homeland security steps, policies, and processs.
Based upon tribunal determinations of prosecution, place actions taken to protect against extra onslaughts, execution of security methods that worked and failed.Discuss prosecution methods that had to happen. Discuss statement on Miranda rights associated to terrorist act.Discuss prosecution arguments associated with terrorist act.Identify policy statements associated with terrorist act.Divide articles identified as possible resources to read, sum up, and supply information that support research undertaking.
The Development program will establish on these stuffs or similar that we will discourse for constructing a multi-layers development program:Enhanced Border Security and Visa Reform Act of 2002 ( EBSVRA )Section 101 ( a ) ( 15 ) of the Immigration and Nationality Act ( 8 U.S.C. 1101 ( a ) ( 15 ) )Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 ( IRTPA )State Department ‘s visa vetting planVisa Security Policy hypertext transfer protocol: //www.
fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/R41093.pdfRisk-Based Security EnterprisesNew Restrictions Quickly Added for Air PassengersUS PATRIOT Act 2001 and 2005Visa Provisions in USA PATRIOT Act Series No. 1Title 14 Aeronauticss and SpaceHomeland Security Presidential Directive 19, Battling Terrorist Use of Explosives in the United StatesPresidential Policy Directive 17, Countering Improvised Explosive Devicess.Nationally Leery Activity Reporting InitiativeHomeland Security Information Network ( HSIN )Immigration Advisory ProgramNational Terrorism Advisory System ( NTAS )
Below are the research stuffs that enhance our undertaking:Blair, D. C. ( 2010 ) .
Road regulations for the Intelligence Community. Vital Speeches Of The Day, 76 ( 4 ) , 176-183. Retrieved from ebscohost databaseCarafano, J.
( 2010 ) . Should the TSA rely upon full-body scanners? Yes. U.S. News Digital Weekly, 2 ( 2 ) , 10. Retrieved from ebscohost databaseDuffy, M.
, Thompson, M. , Tumulty, K. , Van Dyk, D.
, & A ; Yan, S. ( 2010 ) . The Lessons of flight 253. ( Cover narrative ) . Time, 175 ( 1 ) , 26-30. Retrieved from ebscohost databaseFlynn, S. ( 2011 ) .
Recalibrating homeland security. Foreign Affairs, 90 ( 3 ) , 130-140. Retrieved from ebscohost databaseHartley, W.
( 2012 ) . OSINT drumhead: US disrupts alleged AQAP secret plan to aim airliners. Jane ‘s Terrorism & A ; Security Monitor, 12 ( 6 ) Retrieved from Proquest databaseHeng, Y.K. & A ; McDonagh, K. ( 2011 ) After the ‘war on panic ‘ : Regulatory provinces, hazard bureaucratisms and the risk-based administration of panic. International Relations, vol.
25: pp. 313-329 Retrieved from Sagepub datebaseHoffman, B. ( 2010 ) . American jehad. National Interest, ( 107 ) , 17-27. Retrieved from ebscohost databaseHosenball, M. , Isikoff, M. , Thomas, E.
, Dickey, C. , Peraino, K. , & A ; Matthews, O. ( 2010 ) . The radicalization of Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab. ( Cover narrative ) . Newsweek, 155 ( 2 ) , 37-41.
Retrieved from ebscohost databaseLauren, B. O. ( 2011 ) . The development of terrorist act since 9/11. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 80 ( 9 ) , 3-10. Retrieved from Proquest databaseMary, E.
O. ( 2010 ) . The pick of jurisprudence against terrorist act. Journal of National Security Law & A ; Policy, 4 ( 2 ) , 343-368. Retrieved from Proquest databaseMing, H.
C. ( 2010 ) . Alienated: A reworking of the racialization thesis after September 11. The American University Journal of Gender, Social Policy & A ; the Law, 18 ( 3 ) , 411-437.
Retrieved from Proquest databaseNegroponte, J. D. , & A ; Wittenstein, E. M.
( 2010 ) . Urgency, chance, and defeat: Implementing the intelligence reform and terrorist act bar act of 2004. Yale Law & A ; Policy Review, 28 ( 2 ) , 379-417. Retrieved from ebscohost databaseNewswander, C.
B. ( 2011 ) . The outgrowth of zealots and terrorists.
Administrative Theory & A ; Praxis ( M.E. Sharpe ) , 33 ( 2 ) , 192-212. doi:10.2753/ATP1084-1806330202 Retrieved from ebscohost databasePillar, P. R.
( 2012 ) . Think once more: Intelligence. Foreign Policy, ( 191 ) , 1-10. Retrieved from ebscohost databaseGross saless, N. ( 2010 ) .
Repairing walls: Information sharing after the USA PATRIOT Act. Texas Law Review, 88 ( 7 ) , 1795-1854. Retrieved from ebscohost databaseSamuelson, T. D. ( 2009, December 29 ) . ‘Farouk1986 ‘ : What Christmas bombing fishy wrote online. Christian Science Monitor. p.
1. Retrieved from ebscohost databaseWalen, A. ( 2011 ) .
Criminalizing statements of terrorist purpose: How to understand the jurisprudence regulating terrorist menaces, and why it should be used alternatively of long-run preventative detainment. Journal of Criminal Law & A ; Criminology, 101 ( 3 ) , 803-854. Retrieved from Proquest databaseYusha’u, M. J.
, ( 2011 ) News framing of the ‘Detroit Bomber ‘ in the Nigerian imperativenessGlobal Media and Communication, vol. 7: pp. 281-286 Retrieved from Sagepub datebase
Functions of Group Members
Maxwell Arancon – Aid with research and development program of the undertaking, assembled and redacting of undertaking assignmentRafael Gil – Research and authorship of issues relevant to the instanceAngala Griffee – research and development program of the undertaking, digest of articles needed for undertakingBrad Wyatt – research and authorship of the outline of the events