BackgroundSDGs stands for Sustainable Development Goals, known asthe Global Goals, are a universal to action to protect the planet, end poverty,and ensure that all people enjoy prosperity and peace. There are 17 Goalscontinuing the MillenniumDevelopment Goals, while including new areas such as economicinequality, climate change, innovation, sustainable consumption, justice andpeace, among other priorities. The goals are interconnected – where the key tosuccess on one will involve solving the issues more commonly associated withanother.1One of the goals, goal number 5, is Gender Equality.
Gender equality as we know is a state in which when men and women enjoy thesame opportunities and rights across all sectors of society, including decisionmaking and economic participation, and when the different behaviors, needs andaspiration of men and women are equally valued and favored.2But now, there have been a lot of improvements in women’sright, and in gender equality since the last decades. As we know it, women werenot even allowed to work in any kind of jobs before. Women were only allowed towork at home, cook, and ‘serve’ the family. But now, there are a lot of womenwho work in the offices, and even sit in high positions such as managers, evendirectors.But there are not enough.
Women are still discriminated.They are still underrepresented in managerial positions. In the majority of the67 countries with data from 2009 to 2015, less than a third of senior- andmiddle-management positions were held by women.3Women and girls in the world also go through things suchas violence solely based on their gender. Every human has the right to live inpeace and yet some women and girls still unable to achieve those because of the violence they keep experiencing. Therefore,gender equality is important, hence, needed. If women get the same chances andaccesses as men and vice versa, the advantages are not only for women, but forthe human race.
And our country, Indonesia, has regulations and articles aboutthe matter. We can also interpret it from Pancasila, Indonesia’s foundation ofstate, the five principles, and Indonesia’s 1945 constitution.In this paper, writer will discuss why genderinequality happened; how Indonesia’s constitution and Pancasila toward genderequality, and how do we achieve it. 1.2 Problem IdentificationIn problem identification, the author willdescribe the problems that will be discussed in the paper.1. What is SDGS?2. What is gender equality?3.
What are the targets and indicators of genderequality of SDGS?4. What are the Gender Inequality Factors andHow do Pancasila & Civic Education’s see it?5. How is Indonesia’s progress on achievinggender equality? 1.3 Problem FormulationThe problem formulation of this paper is,”How to achieve gender equality from Pancasila and civic education’s point ofview? CHAPTER2DISCUSSION In this chapter, the author will discussabout SDGs in general, gender equality in general, gender equality in SDGs,acts that create gender inequality, how Pancasila and civic education seesgender equality, and Indonesia’s progress on achieving gender equality itself.2.1 SDGsSDGsstands for Sustainable Development Program, whereas it has 17 goals with 169targets which scheduled to be achieved in 2030.
The 17 targets are:1. No Poverty2. Zero Hunger3. Good Health and Well-Being4. Quality Education5. Gender Equality6. Clean Water and Sanitation7. Affordable and Clean Energy8.
Decent Work and Economic Growth9. Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure10. ReducedInequalities11. SustainableCities and Communities12. ResponsibleConsumption and Production13.
ClimateAction14. LifeBelow Water15. Lifeon Land16. Peace,Justice, and Strong Institutions17. Partnershipsfor the Goals The targets and goals will trigger actionover the next fifteen years in areas of critical importance for the planet andhumanity:a. PeopleEndpoverty and hunger, ensure human beings can fulfil their potential in dignityand equality with a healthy environment.
b. PlanetProtectthe planet from degradation, though sustainable consumption and production,managing natural resources, taking actions on climate change.c. ProsperityHumanbeings can enjoy prosperous and fulfilling lives with economic, socialtechnological progress occurs in harmony with nature.d.
PeaceFosterpeaceful, free from fear and violence.e. PartnershipFocusingin particular on the needs of the poorest and most vulnerable and with theparticipation of all stakeholders, all countries and all people.4 Whichbrings us to SDG number 5, gender equality. 2.2 Gender EqualityGender equality is, as we know, a state in which accessto rights or opportunities is unaffected by gender.
Gender equality is onlystated as achieved when men and women enjoy the same rights and opportunitiesacross all sectors of society, including decision making and economicparticipation, and when the different behaviors, needs and aspirations of menand women are equally valued and favoured.5 Normally, peopleconsider gender equality to be related only to women, since it is the genderwhich usually discriminated against. Even though, men can facegender equality issues as well. 6While the world has achieved progress towards genderequality and women’s empowerment under the Millennium Development Goals (includingequal access to primary education between girls and boys), women and girlscontinue to suffer violence and discrimination in every part of the world.Gender equality is not only a fundamental human right,but a necessary foundation for a peaceful, prosperous and sustainable world.Providing girls and women with equal access to healthcare, education, decent work, and representation in economic and politicaldecision-making processes will fuel sustainable economies and benefit societiesand humanity at large.
2.3 Targetsand Indicators of Gender Equality in SDGsThere are many ways to achieve gender equality. One cansimply started by ourselves, as society. How society treats women and men, isone of the main factors on why gender inequality is still a thing. But first wehave to know what are we trying to achieve and how do we know we have achievedit? SDGs have these targets and indicators: Here are the targets and indicators: Targets Indicators To end all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere whether a legal framework exists or not to promote, enforce and monitor gender equality and non-discrimination To eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation 1. the proportion of ever-partnered girls and women aged 15 years and older subjected to psychological, sexual or physical violence by a current or former intimate partner in the previous 12 months, by age and form of violence 2.
the proportion of women and girls aged 15 years and older subjected to sexual violence by persons other than an intimate partner in the previous 12 months, by age and place of occurrence To eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early, and forced marriage and female genital mutilation 1. The proportion of women aged 20-24 years who were married or in a union before age 15 and before age 18 2. The proportion of girls and women aged 15-49 years who have undergone female genital mutilation/cutting, by age To recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work through the provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection policies and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household and the family as nationally appropriate 1. The proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic and care work, by sex, age, and location To ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life 1. The proportion of seats in national parliaments and local government that are held by women 2.
The proportion of women in managerial positions To ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences 1. The proportion of women aged 15-49 years who make their own informed decisions regarding sexual relations, contraceptive use and reproductive health car 2. The number of countries with laws and regulations that guarantee women aged 15-49 years access to sexual and reproductive health care, information and education To undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance and natural resources, in accordance with national laws 1. The proportion of the total agricultural population with the ownership or security right of agricultural land, by sex; and division of women among owners or stakeholders of agricultural land, by type of ownership. 2. The proportion of countries where the legal framework (including customary law) guarantees women’s equal rights to land ownership and/or control To enchance the use of technology that allows, especially information and communication technology, to promote women empowerment 1.
The proportion of individuals who own a mobile telephone, by sex To adopt and strengthen sound policies and enforceable legislation for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels 1. The proportion of countries with systems to create and track public allocations for gender equality and women’s empowerment.7 2.4 GenderInequality Factors and Pancasila & Civil Education’s POVNow, many people still stick to traditionalideas that men and women should behave in ways that fall into specificcategories determined solely on their gender. However, gender roles are socialconstructs developed over time and are not based on natural human behavior.This is happened because gender roles evolved as a way to organize thenecessary tasks done in early human society. These stereotypes can be harmfulbecause they motivate people to condemn and oppress those who do not fit thetraditional gender roles.8Therefore, society needs to be the one who works to fix the issue that theycreated.
How do we find the solutions, is simply by looking at the problems.2.4.1 DiscriminationFirst, a fundamental reason we have not yet achievedgender equality in every realm is that women and girls’ voices are too oftenexcluded from global and national decision-making.9Whereas, with a variety of opinions, then there will be many considerations.Therefore, opportunities to get better decisions are greater.Worldwide, many have produced regulations intended tofight discrimination and programs granting women access to health, education,and economic rights such as land ownership.
Nonetheless, the fact remains thatwomen with lower participation in the labor force, have fewer opportunitiesthan men to benefit from economic development.10All because of their gender.How do we know who is capable of which if we never givethem the opportunity in the first place? Women could’ve been had more ideas andways that men may have never thought of, and yet, they got no chance to proveit.The average amount of time spent on unpaid domestic andcare work is more than threefold higher for women than men, according to surveydata from 83 countries and areas. Available data shows that time spent ondomestic chores accounts for a large proportion of the gender gap in unpaidwork.Globally, women’s participation in single or lower housesof national parliaments reached 23.4 per cent in 2017, just 10 percentagepoints higher than in 2000. Such slow progress suggests that stronger politicalcommitment and more ambitious measures and quotas are needed to boost women’spolitical participation and empowerment.
As it said on Indonesia’s principle, Pancasila, we cansee it from all five of the principles. In this case, the fifth principle has abig role. “Keadilan sosialbagi seluruh rakyat Indonesia.”In which translates to, social justice for all Indonesian citizens. Every person, every citizen, has the same rights and obligationsin the country. Therefore, women should be heard the same as they have theequal volume of voice as men.UUD 1945 also has a few clauses about equality. One ofthem is clause 28 I, verse 2, which reads:”Setiap orang berhak bebas dari perlakuan yang bersifatdistriminatif atas dasar apapun dan berhak mendapatkan perlindungan terhadapperlakuan yang bersifat diskriminatif itu.
“Whereas it translates to every person shall be entitledto be free from discriminatory treatment on any basis and entitled toprotection against such discriminatory treatment. In this sentence,discriminatory are consists of lots of aspects, such as tribe, religion, race,intergroup, and in this case, gender. Women should not get discriminated bytheir gender, something they did not choose. The same goes to men. Just becausethey are men, does not mean they have to do the entire heavy work etc.
An example of genderdiscrimination would be if a woman was denied a job, or waspaid less than a man would be paid, or received a lesser compensation and benefits packagesolely on the basis of her being female.This point is also supported by Indonesia’s constitutionno. 7 year 1984 and its attachments, whereas it said that Indonesian governmenthas the obligations to promotes, fulfills, and also protects women’s rights invarious aspects of life as individual and as citizens. Therefore, the countryis obliged to make every effort to give protection, pledge, and fulfillment ofrights to live safely, equal, and fair for their citizens, especially for womenwhom still experiencing injustice and gender inequality in various aspects oflife, mainly in rural areas.112.
4.2 Violence against WomenBesides discrimination, women also experience violence.Whether it is at home, on the streets or during war, violence against girls andwomen is a human rights violation of pandemic proportions that takes place inpublic and private spaces. Violence against women and girls manifests itself inphysical, sexual, and psychological forms.
The United Nation, has some dataabout the matter. They said there are around five forms of manifests.First, there is an Intimate Partner Violence , in whichit means any behavior by a current or former partner or spouse that causesphysical, sexual, or psychological harm. Even in worldwide, 1 in 3 women haveexperienced sexual and physical violence, mostly by an intimate partner. And, 1 in2 women killed were killed by their partners or family in 2012 whereas only 1out of 20 men were killed in such circumstances.12Laws must protect women.
Worldwide, two-thirds ofcountries have outlawed domestic violence.13Indonesia itself has article or clause that regulates domestic violence.Indonesia’s constitution number 23 (2004) said that domestic violence is anykind of action to someone, especially women, that resulting in misery orsuffering physically, sexually, psychologically, and/or neglect on householdincluding threat to do acts, coercions, or deprivation of liberty unlawfullywithin the scope of the household. The clause regulates: 1.
Definition of domestic violence2. Who is included in the household scope3. Forms of domestic violence4. Definition of physical violence5. Definition of psychological violence6.
Definition of sexual violence7. Definition of neglect on household8. Victim’s rights9.
Government’s obligations10. Community obligations11. The criminal provisions of the offender12. Caseverification14 Second, Sexual Violence& Harassment. Sexual violence is anysexual act, attempt to obtain a sexual act, unwanted sexual comments oradvances against a person’s sexuality using coercion, by any person regardlessof their relationship to the victim, in any setting. Sexual violent acts cantake place in different circumstances and settings, including unwanted n sexualadvances, rape, sexual abuse of children, and forced marriage.
The third one is Human Trafficking. Human Trafficking isthe acquisition and exploitation of people, through means, such as force, fraudor deception. The practice ensnares millions of women and girls into modern-dayslavery, many of whom are sexually exploited.Forth, Female Genital Mutilation (FGM).
FGM includesprocedures that intentionally alter or cause injury to the female genitalorgans for non-medical reasons. Beyond extreme physical and psychological pain,the practice carries many health risks, including death. The majority of girlswere cut before the age of 5.15Regulation of the minister of health of the republic ofIndonesia no. 6 year 2014 which explains how the previous regulations about howFGM is allowed has been revoked and declared invalid. It also tells Assembly ofHealth Considerations and Syara’k to publish guidelines for the implementationof female circumcision ensure the safety and health of women who arecircumcised and do not do female genital mutilation.
At least 200 million girls and women alive today have undergoneFGM in 30 countries as it said on the representative data that’s available.And last but not least, Child Marriage. Almost 750million women and girls alive today were married before their 18thbirthday. Whilst 4 in 10 girls in West and Central Africa were married beforeage 18 and about 1 in 7 were married or in union before age 15.Indonesia’s constitution, article 7, the first passage,said that: “Perkawinan hanyadiizinkan bila pihak pria mencapai umur 19 (sembilan belas) tahun dan pihakwanita sudah mencapai usia 16 (enambelas) tahun.”In which it translates to, Marriages are only allowed ifonly the man reached the age of 19 (nineteen), and the woman has reached theage of 16 (sixteen). Child marriage usually means an end to girl’s education,vocation, and her right to make life choices. Research confirmsthat girls who marry in childhood are at greater risk of violent sexualpartners than girls of the same age married later.
Thereis also article 6, second passage, which sounds:”Untuk melangsungkan perkawinan seorang yangbelum mencapai umur 21 (dua puluh satu)tahun harus mendapat izin kedua orangtua.”In which it translates to, To marry someone who is notyet reached the age of 21 (twenty one), there must be parental consent. Thispoint could be a problem because in this case, there is a chance the marriagewas only the parent consent, not the child, the one who is going to marry. Manygirls were forced to marry for their parents’ will.
In many communitieswhere child marriages are practiced, girls are not valued as a burden to theirfamilies. Marrying your daughter at a young age can be seen as a way to reduceeconomic hardship by transferring this ‘burden’ to her husband’s family.16Child marriage is also driven by patriarchal values andthe desire to control female sexuality, for instance, how a girl should behave,how she should dress, who she should be allowed to see, to marry, etc. Families keep and protecting their girls’ sexuality andvirginity to guard family honor.
Girls who have arelationship or become pregnant out of wedlock are shamed for bringing an insultto their family.Many parents marrytheir young daughters because they feel it is in their best interest, often toensure safety in areas where girls are at high risk of harassing and physicalor sexual abuse..17 2.5 Indonesia’sProgress on Gender EqualityWith all of these discrimination and violence againstwomen keep happening, even after Indonesian government released regulationsabout the matter, the latest Human Development Index (HDI) report released bythe United Nations Development Program (UNDP) says Indonesia is stillstruggling to close its gender equality gap.The UNDP data shows a wide gap between Indonesian womenand men in terms of gross national income per capita, which is 6.668 and 13.
391respectively. Only 50.9 percent of women participate in the labor force,compared to 83.9 percent of men.
Still, Christian Bahuet, UNDP Indonesia Country Director,noted that Indonesia’s progress in terms of policies to push for women’sempowerment had been good, including those that facilitated better access forwomen to credit, which could encourage women to run businesses, generate incomeand empower themselves in society.18 CHAPTER 3CONCLUSION 3.1 ConclusionInconclusion, gender inequality still exists, discrimination and violence basedsolely on anyone’s gender is also still happening. Discrimination often can befound in offices, parliaments, etc.
There has been improvement throughout theages, on how women now are having more accesses, and more decent jobs.Indonesia itself already have some regulations to control about the matter, onhow every citizen deserved to be treated the same and have the same rights aswell as obligations. There is also an article from the constitution on howevery citizen deserves the right to be free from discrimination. Whilst for violenceagainst women, even though there are many forms of it, Indonesia’s hasregulations about each of it as well. Example, there’s a regulation thatcontrols on minimum ages of marrying to avoid child marriage. Despite theapparent effort to achieve gender equality, there are still things that causegender inequality to be found and gender equality has yet to achieve.3.
2 AdviceWithall the efforts the government has given to achieve gender equality, it is onlyfair if we, as citizen, as society, to do something about it as well. We couldstart by, not disrespecting women nor men, stop discriminating anyone solelybased on their gender, and also, never think violence as a way to solve aproblem nor personal satisfaction.