Banana is one of the most important fruit which people consumed to supply needs of vitamin and carbohydrates. However, many disease that attack banana plantation cause the production of banana is decrease. There are many kinds of disease which attack banana plantation such as Fusarium Wilt, Bunchy Top, Blood disease, Black Leaf Streak, Black Sigatoka disease, Yellow Sigatoka disease and etc.
From several types of disease, Fusarium Wilt is the most cause major banana plantations in Indonesia. Futhermore, will be explained about the causes of Fusarium Wilt disease and how to control it.First, Fusarium wilt disease also known as Panama Disease on a banana plantations caused by Fusarium oxysporum (Paul et al., 2011).
According to Wibowo et al., 2011 and Hermanto et al., 2011 Race 4 strains of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense are exists in Indonesia and may be widely spread as it was found in Central Java, Lampung Sumatera, and East Kalimantan attacking local banana cultivars such as Pisang ambon, raja, awak , kepok , kepok kerau, raja nangka, barangan, raja and ambon hijau.
These fungus include of soil-borne fungus, which spread through the soil and root contants. Moreover, these fungus attack all parts of banana plant such as roots, stems and leaves. Because of that many cultivars of banana are susceptible to this disease. The fungus attacks the roots and colonizes the xylem vessels its makes the flow of water and nutrients inhibited. This makes Fusarium Wilt disease is the most cause a drecrease production in banana plantation. The early symptom of fusarium wilt disease is yellow leaves and wilt which start from the old leaves and break stems of plant. The advanced symptoms is all of the leaves change yellow, dry and wilted then almost black in the end.
Finally the plant death, if the stem base be split will appears reddish to brown discoloration in vascular system. Second, how to control Fusarium Wilt disease in Banana plantation. Many methods to solve disease in banana plantations but in this case the methods used should be more specific, there are with resistant cultivars and biological control. First, resistant cultivars are cultivars which known to be resistant to the F. oxysforum from the result many research.
The cultivars of banana is know resistant to F. oxysforum is FHIA-02 (Huang et al., 2005) and Giant Cavendish (Hwang & Ko, 2004). Second, biological control with Allium sp. and Trichoderma sp.
According to Zhang (2013), the reduced incidence of Fusarium wilt with the presence of Chinese chives caused by the sulfur volatiles causing inhibitory effects on F. oxysporum mycelial growth and spore germination. In addition, Intercropping A. tuberosum with ‘Grande Naine’ cultivar of banana and was can suppress the incidence of Fusarium wilt (Nadrajah et al., 2016).
Other biological control is Trichoderma sp. which has long been known as biological control agent for some types of soil borne pathogens in plant disease. Application of Trichoderma sp. in banana plantations reducing patoghenicity of Fusarium Wilt was reported Sudirman et al.
, 2011 rthat Trichoderma sp. is antagonistic and has ability to suppress development of F. oxysporum.In conclusion, Fusarium Wilt disease caused big damage and decrease production in banana plantations.
The cycle of F. oxysporum must be research more deep to know how so cut mechanism pathogenicity of it. In addition, integrated disease management is important to reducing that disease, combine resistant cultivars and biological control application. Management of banana plantation from disease will improve the production and can supply food for people.