Body Image Essay, Research Paper
The intent of this survey is to farther explore and analyze the influences of mass media on male s and female s personal organic structure image satisfaction and the consciousness and internalisation of social force per unit areas sing visual aspect. For a figure old ages grounds environing the insecurities that adult females have towards their ain organic structures has been widely published. More late, it has been suggested that work forces are falling victim to media and
social force per unit area, and are developing insecurities traditionally associated with adult females. Much of the organic structure dissatisfaction that we see today can be attributed to the tremendous disparity between our current cultural beauty ideals and our existent organic structures. Although most of the research environing the influences of media on organic structure image has taken the signifier of analysing exposure through the scrutiny of such things as magazine content, recent
research has begun to concentrate on an single s consciousness of social force per unit areas, every bit good as one s credence, or internalisation, of these social criterions ( Cusumano & A ; Thompson,1997 ) .
Every civilization has criterions of beauty. Through the ages and around the universe, people have evaluated the visual aspect of themselves and others. A individual s organic structure image is his or her construct of their physical visual aspect. The mental representation which may be realistic or unrealistic, is constructed from self-observation, the reactions of others, and a
complex interaction of attitudes, emotions, memories, phantasies, and experiences, both witting and unconscious. A delighting visual aspect has frequently been associated with higher position, better chances to pull a mate and other positive qualities. We live in a society that thrives on first feelings. Many people interact with big Numberss of new people everyday, particularly in their work lives, and we frequently have small information about
who these people are, but we do cognize how they look. We try to size them up based on how they are dressed, how they talk, how they move and their overall physical visual aspect. Peoples tend to judge a fat individual as lazy and self-indulgent and a thin individual as organized and disciplined and these stereotypes are reinforced by the media. A survey done by Franzoi and Herzog ( 1987 ) examined what organic structure parts and maps immature grownups use in judging physical attraction and how they are related to self regard. They found
that aspects of male ego esteem dealt with upper organic structure strength and facets of female ego esteem dealt with weight concerns. They farther indicated that work forces by and large have more positive attitudes toward their organic structures than adult females do.
Levine and associates ( 1994 ) reported that 70 % of the adolescent adult females who
on a regular basis read manner magazines considered the magazines an of import beginning of beauty and fittingness information. The mass selling of organic structure images through print media and telecasting advertisement has been good documented as a powerful force in making the 90 s perceptual experience of the tall, thin, and toned ideal for adult females and the moderate-sized, muscular ideal for work forces ( Rabak-Wagener, Eickhoff-Shemek, & A ; Kelly-Vance, 1998 ) . As media increases as a vehicle for information to develop our individualities it expands its possible to make and reenforce peculiar values, stereotypes and behaviours every bit good as alter societies
perceptual experiences of world ( Fouts & A ; Burggraf, 1999, Sipiora, 1991, Leobert & A ; Sprafkin, 1988 ) . The more people are exposed to these values, stereotypes, and behaviors the more it is reinforced that there is an association between the ideal organic structure image, physical attraction, desirableness, personal dignity, and success ( Fouts & A ; Burggraf, 1999 ) . The deduction is a society that appears to tie in organic structure size and form as direct facets of their individualities and self worth ; if a adult male or a adult female is unhappy with the manner they look, so they are unhappy with themselves.
In one of the most authoritative research surveies in the country of organic structure image, Garner, Garfinkel, Schwartz, and Thompson ( 1980 ) investigated the altering organic structure form of Playboy centrefolds and are considered to be the prototype of the female organic structure. The research workers collected hip and flop measurings every bit good as the weights of the centrefolds for a 20 twelvemonth period ( 1959-1978 ) . The consequences indicated that the centrefolds weighed significantly less than that
of the mean female and that the flop and hip size had decreased over the period of clip ( Cusumano & A ; Thompson, 1997 ) . In 1992 Wiseman, Gray, Mosimann, and Ahrens attempted to retroflex the research of Garner et Al. ( 1980 ) and spread out it by doing it a more recent 10 twelvemonth span ( 1979-1988 ) . Their consequences indicated weights for the Playboy centrefolds were 13-19 % lower than the weight assigned as normal based on actuarial tabular arraies. A lessening in flop and hip measurings was besides seen ( Cusumano & A ; Thompson, ( 1997 ) . The research workers of this survey point out that keeping a organic structure weight that is 15 %
lower than one s expected weight is a standard for anorexia nervosa.
One of the best accounts for the addition in organic structure dissatisfaction and the increased prevalence of eating upsets seems to be the social force per unit areas pushed by the media. The function of the media and the thin criterion of attraction for adult females promoted by the media has been shown to take adult females to rate their organic structures more negatively ( Hamilton & A ; Waller, 1993 ) , which, in bend, leads to an addition in low ego regard, depression, and eating upset symptoms ( Irving, 1990, Stice & A ; Shaw, 1994 ) .
Different vehicles of media have been researched, with magazines and telecasting seeming to be the most widely studied and movie near behind. A survey of Hollywood movies by Smith, McIntosh, and Bazzini ( 1999 ) established that attractive characters were portrayed more favourably than unattractive characters in such dimensions as friendliness and intelligence and that exposure to extremely stereotypic movies can arouse stronger favouritism
towards the ideal stereotypes in existent life state of affairss.
In utilizing telecasting and magazine advertisement research has shown that a individual s organic structure image is elastic and can fluctuate in response to media content that focuses on the presentation of the ideal organic structure form ( Myers & A ; Biocca ) . A survey done by Lavine, Sweeney, a
nd Wagner examined the effects on organic structure dissatisfaction after exposure to certain Television ads. Participants were divided into one group that viewed 15 male chauvinist and 5 nonsexist Television ads, another that viewed 20 nonsexist Television ads, and a no Television ad control group. Their consequences showed that adult females exposed to the male chauvinist ads revealed larger disagreements between their existent and ideal organic structure sizes and judged themselves as larger than the adult females who viewed the nonsexist and no ads. Work forces exposed to the male chauvinist ads
viewed themselves as dilutant and besides showed larger disagreements between their existent and ideal organic structure sizes than the viewing audiences of nonsexist ads and no ads. Work force that viewed the male chauvinist ads besides exhibited big disagreements between their ain ideal organic structure size and their perceptual experience of other s ideal organic structure size penchants. This showed that the work forces that viewed the male chauvinist ads believed that other work forces preferred a larger ideal organic structure size ( Lavine, Sweeney, & A ; Wagner, 1999 ) .
Renee A. Botta explored organic structure image in relation to telecasting utilizing societal comparing theory and critical screening of 214 high school misss. Her consequences indicated that media variables accounted for 15 % of the discrepancy for thrust for tenuity, 17 % for organic structure dissatisfaction, 16 % for bulimic behaviours, and 33 % for thin ideal indorsement. Botta goes on farther to propose that organic structure image processing is the key to understanding how telecasting images affect adolescent miss s organic structure image attitudes and behaviours ( Botta, 1999 ) .
A really challenging content analysis was done by Fouts and Burggraf ( 1999 ) of 28 different premier clip telecasting comedies. They examined the weights of 52 cardinal female characters ( 88 % white, 19 % black, & A ; 2 % Asian ) , the verbal remarks they received from other characters as a map of organic structure weight, and their remarks about themselves with regard to their organic structure size, weight, form and dieting behaviours. Below mean weight cardinal characters were over-represented and above norm weight characters were under-represented. The characters that were below mean weight received significantly more positive remarks from male characters and females that were dieting gave themselves more negative penalty for their organic structure. This over-representation of the thin ideal combined with the verbal support of that ideal probably contributes to the internalisation of the thin ideal and puts some immature female viewing audiences at hazard for developing eating upsets ( Fouts & A ; Burggraf, 1999 ) .
Hamilton and Waller ( 1993 ) found that exposure to female manner images
contributes to overestimate of organic structure weight and overall dissatisfaction with one s organic structure Turner, Hamilton, Jacobs, Angood, and Hovde Dwyer ( 1997 ) examined the impact of exposure to manner magazines on adult females s organic structure image satisfaction. 39 undergraduate adult females were indiscriminately assigned to either a group that viewed manner magazines or a group that viewed intelligence magazines and so both groups took a organic structure satisfaction study. Womans who viewed manner magazines were less satisfied with their organic structures, preferred to weigh less, were more defeated about their weight, were more bemused with the desire to be thin, and were more afraid of acquiring fat than were the group that viewed
intelligence magazines ( Turner, Hamilton, Jacobs, Angood, & A ; Hovde Dwyer, 1997 ) .
A similar survey with an experimental group and a control group found important alterations in beliefs sing their ain organic structure images of the group that viewed magazine advertizements that contained ideal organic structure size images. This survey concluded that it is possible for manner advertisement to heighten people s negative attitudes and behaviours sing their ain organic structure image ( Rabak-Wagener, Eickhoff-Shemek, & A ; Kelly-Vance, 1998 ) . Crouch and Degelman ( 1998 ) found that adolescent misss evaluations of ego attraction were significantly higher following exposure to manner advertizements incorporating theoretical accounts who were overweight and lower ego attraction after exposure to advertizements with theoretical accounts that were non.
More research is being done today that examines the organic structure image satisfaction of work forces. In Franzoi and Herzog s 1987 survey they asked work forces and adult females to judge 35 different facets of their ain organic structures. Men judged 16 points ( e.g. organic structure build, tummy, natess, thighs ) more favourably than adult females, while adult females merely found more positive attitudes associated with their ears. Harmonizing to Franzoi and Herzog ( 1987 ) these organic structure esteem differences can be attributed to three things ; the greater public attending to the female organic structure, the greater importance females place on their visual aspect due to such attending, and the mode in which physical visual aspect more clearly defines a female s worth and position than that of a male s. Andersen and DiDomencio ( 1992 ) compared organic structure
form ideals in articles and advertizements in 10 work forces s magazines ( Gentlemen s Quarterly, Field & A ; Stream, Jet, Life, Newsweek, National Geographic, Rolling rock, Playboy, Penthouse, and Sports Illustrated ) and in 10 adult females s magazines ( Ladies Home Journal, Redbook, Better Homes and Gardens, Family Circle, Seventeen, Glamour, McCalls, Woman s Day, Good Housekeeping, and cosmopolite ) . They found that diet advertizements magazines. This ratio closely reflected the ratio of the incidence of eating upsets in adult females to the incidence of eating upsets in work forces ( Cusumano & A ; Thompson, 1997 ) . Harmonizing to Botta the available studies suggest that media do hold an impact on organic structure
image perturbation, both straight through organic structure image processing and indirectly by
promoting males and females to back their several ideals and by set uping what they see as realistic ideals ( Botta, 1999 ) .
The present survey seeks to analyze the influence of exposure to media ideal organic structure images and the consciousness and internalisation of those ideals on males and females. The consequences of old surveies indicate that the media plays a function in non merely reflecting social perceptual experiences of male and female organic structure image, but in determining those perceptual experiences. Media stereotypes, publicizing gambits, and the manner industry have all lead to the debut of the unrealistic ideal organic structure form that we compare ourselves to. How we feel about our organic structures and how our organic structures look to us in the mirror is an of import facet of our ego regard and for many Americans the media tells us how we should experience and look.