Bolivia Essay, Research Paper
If you don Ts know anything about Bolivia Don T be alarmed, you are non the lone 1. In my paper I will state you a batch more than you need to cognize. Bolivia is really an interesting state that was the last state in South America to acquire its independency from Spain. Bolivia has been through many reformations and has been lead by many leaders. It is non an economically stable state and does non hold the best life conditions. But Bolivia does provide the universe with of import minerals, and is a trading spouse with the United States. Now that you know a small something about Bolivia,2 and now that you are interested, travel on, read the remainder of my study, you ll happen it interesting and enlightening. 1.PRE-COLUMBIAN HISTORYBy 600 B.C. , a great Andaen Empire had been established between the mountains in Bolivia. The ancient metropolis was called Tiwanaku. Tiwanaku was a great centre of trade and faith. The Tiwanaku civilisation was established through colonisation alternatively of conquering. The civilisation expanded instead rapidly after the twelvemonth 1000 and collapsed around 1200. The Tiwanaku influenced other civilisations as the Aymara and the Quechua. The Aymara were the dominant people of the clip until the Quechua came along. The Aymara were non able to halt the enlargement of the Quechua. The Quechua which subsequently became the Incas after the name of their swayer got stronger by the terminal of the 15 century and conquered the Aymara. Even though the Incas conquered the Aymara they were able to maintain their civilization, their faith and their linguistic communication. The Incas besides offered the Aymara people occupations in the mines or in the ground forces and to the full compensated them for their labour. In 1470 several Aymara kindoms rebelled againstthe Inca regulation. The Incas completly defeated them. By the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Incas had to the full established their regulation over South America. The Incas failed to suppress mobile folks in the eastern Bolivian lowlands. The Incas could merely get the better of the civilizations that were based on agribusiness. 2.COLONIAL HISTORYFrancisco Pizarro, Diego de Almargo, and Hernando de Luque were the leaders of the find of the Inca Empire. In 1524 they sailed south down the Pacific seashore of Panama looking for the land of gold. The Spaniards conquered the Inca Empire, which they thought was the land of gold. Many Indian rebellions continued subsequently but they ne’er regained power. In 1559 Bolivia ( Upper Peru at the clip ) became an of import judicial territory for the Spanish conquistadors. It was known as the Chacas territory. Bolivia became celebrated in the sixteenth century because of its rich Ag sedimentations. One sedimentation in the metropolis of Potosi was so big that slaves and excess excavation equipment had to be shipped in from Africa. By 1650 Potosi was the largest metropolis in both North and South America with over 150,000 people. By the terminal of the century Ag production had decreased and people decided to travel out of Potosi to other metropoliss like Oruro and La Paz, which became major trading centres. In 1780 Indian leaders in La Paz revolted. The rebellions led to Guerrilla warfare in the Highlandss. The Indians were defeated and the leaders of the groups were executed. This was the last clip the Indians tried to gang up and battle for their freedom. Bolivia s first independency motion was in 1809. Pedro Domingo Murillo with aid from civilians took over control of La Paz. Murillo s forces were defeated in 1810 and Murillo himself was hung in the center of La Paz. Bolivia was the last state in South America to get away from Spanish regulation. Simon Boliviar, Antonio Jose de Sucre, and Andres Santa Cruz were cardinal figures in the independency. In 1823 Cruz rallied a force together and attacked Spanish military personnels near La Paz, but they were defeated. In 1824 Boliviar s ground forces defeated the Spanish forces in Peru and decided to make the same in New Peru ( Bolivia ) . The figures rallied a group of soldiers and freed the state in 1825. The state was named Bolivia after Simon Boliviar and Cities were named after Sucre and Santa Cruz. A fundamental law was made in 1826. After Boliviar did his work he left the state. Santa Cruz reighned as president for the following 10 old ages. 3.MODERN HISTORYThe Republic of Bolivia is located in cardinal South America. Brazil borders the North and E sides, Paraguay is on the sou’-east, Argentina borders the South, and it is bordered on the West by Chile and Peru. Bolivia does non hold direct entree to the sea. The country of Bolivia is 424,165 square stat mis, doing it 5th in size of South American states. The chief land characteristic of Bolivia is the Andes Mountains, which run north to south across the western portion of the state. The highest Andean extremums are Ancohuma at 21,489 pess and Illampu at 21,276 pess. Bolivia is wholly within the Tropics, but because of its varied lift, it has a broad scope of temperatures. In the higher parts the clime is cold and dry with strong air currents. In the lower parts the clime is warmer. The mean one-year temperature in the Highlandss is about 47. F, in the lower parts the clime is warmer at approximately 79. F. The population of Bolivia ( by the 1989 estimation ) was 7,193,000. The population denseness was about 17 per square stat mi, which is one of the lowest in South America. About 55 % of all the people in Bolivia are Native American, approximately 30 % are mestizo, and the remainder are white, from of Spanish descent. About 51 % of the people live in rural areas.The functionary linguistic communications of Bolivia are Spanish and two Native South American linguistic communications, Quechua and Aymara. Roman Catholicism is the official faith of Bolivia. The constitutional capital of Bolivia is Sucre ( 95,635 ) , La Paz ( 1,049,800 ) , is the administrative capital and the largest metropolis. Other of import metropoliss in Bolivia are Santa Cruz ( 577,800 ) , which is a major trade centre ; Cochabamba ( 377,259 ) , a agrarian part ; Oruro ( 195,239 ) , and Potosi ( 114,092 ) , in the excavation territory. In Bolivia instruction is free for pupils ages 6 to 14 much like public schools here in the United States but there are non plenty schools to run into the demands of Bolivia, which has an illiteracy rate of 35 % . Bolivia has ten universities. Saint Francis Xavier University which was established in 1624, in Sucre, is one of the oldest in the Americas. The University of Sa
n Andres established in 1830, in La Paz, is the largest university in Bolivia with approximately 37,000 pupils.
The big Native American population follows the ways of its ascendants with a mixture of Spanish traditions. Clothing is colourful and made for life in high heights. Vacations and spiritual festivals are celebrated by dancing and celebrations. The largest excavation operations were nationalized in Bolivia during the 1950 s, but the authorities encouraged private development. Annual budget figures for the late 1980 s showed it was balanced at approximately $ 2.9 billion. Agribusiness is highly of import to the Bolivian economic system because it employs half the labour force. Although now self-sufficing in the production of sugar, rice, and meat. The chief Bolivian harvests are murphies, sugar cane, cotton, java, maize, rice, and wheat. And a major portion of income comes from the turning of coca foliages, the beginning of cocaine. The deficiency of transit has prevented development of the Bolivian woods, which cover more than half the state & # 8217 ; s country. Mining is a major industry in Bolivia. Bolivia has been one of the universe & # 8217 ; s taking manufacturers of Sn. Bolivia is besides a major universe manufacturer of Bi and Sb. Bolivian mines besides produce wolframs, lead, Zn, Cu, and silver. The industry accounts for approximately 11 % of the gross domestic merchandise and employs 9 % of the labour force. Sugar refinement, leather working, baccy processing, chemicals, paper, furniture, glass, explosives, and lucifers are besides large industries. More than two-thirds of all fabrication is in La Paz.Natural gas accounted for 36 % of export net incomes in the late eightiess, and Sn provided 13 % . Silver, Sb, lead, Cu, Zn, wolfram, java, and sugar are besides of import exports. The United States, Argentina, and Brazil are Bolivia & # 8217 ; s chief trading spouses. The unit of currency of Bolivia is the boliviano, 3.07 bolivianos equal U.S. $ 1. The Banco Central de Bolivia is the chief bank in Bolivia. State-owned Bankss provide recognition to little excavation operations. Private fiscal establishments besides operate in Bolivia. The entire Bolivian railway trackage is about 2260 stat mis. Railroads connect the state to ports on the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The chief line connects La Paz with the port of Antofagasta, Chile. About 25,470 stat mis of roads exist in Bolivia. The national air hose, Lloyd Aereo Boliviano, provides regular service between the major Bolivian metropoliss, with other Latin American states, and with the U.S. Bolivia & # 8217 ; s labour force was 1.7 million in the late 1980 s. Nearly the all labour force, with the exclusion of husbandmans, is organized, with most being in brotherhoods belonging to the Central Obrera Boliviana ( COB ) . Health conditions are hapless in Bolivia. In the mid-1980 s the state had 1 physician for every 1600 people. The infant decease rate is one the highest in South America ; malaria, dysentery, and TB are common, and there was an eruption of xanthous febrility in the late eightiess. Hospitals are unequal in rural countries. In May 1951, the leader V ctor Paz Estenssoro won about half the presidential election ballot. Because no campaigner had a bulk of the ballot, election of a president from among the three taking campaigners went to Congress. So that Paz wasn t elected the president of the clip, Harriaque Urriolagoitia, put the authorities under the control of the military and resigned. General Hugo Ballivian was appointed president, but in April 1952 his authorities was overthrown by Paz and he took the presidential term. Throughout the 1950 s and into the 1960 s the Bolivian economic system suffered from a bead in universe Sn monetary values. The Sn mines were unprofitable and the authorities failed to do it better. The Bolivian fundamental law prevented the reelection of Paz in 1956, but Vice President Hernan Siles Zuazowon won the election. Paz was reelected in 1960 and in 1961 he pressed for a new fundamental law that would allow the authorities assist the economic system. Paz was reelected in 1964, but many of his earlier protagonists left him. And the authorities ne’er did assist the economic jobs. Paz was overthrown in November after an uprising by mineworkers, and the military took his authoritiess topographic point. In the following two old ages, the military authorities made reforms in tin-mining operations, and reopened the industry to private and foreign investing. Barrientos, who was elected president in July 1966, was forced to depend on armed force to halt Communist-led guerilla motions. The Bolivian ground forces defeated the Communists in October 1967, in conflict near the small town of Vallegrande. Barrientos was killed in the clang of a chopper in April 1969 and the armed forces led the authorities after that. General Juan Jose Torres Gonzales was overthrown by Colonel Hugo Banzer Suarez in August 1971. Banzer stepped down in 1978, and 1979 and 1980 it was handled by the armed forces. By 1982 Bolivia s net incomes from Sn had gone down, and debt continued to lift. The illegal exportation of cocaine was truly the chief money-maker at the timeIn October 1982 Hernan Siles Zuazo was made president ; he was unable to decide jobs brought on by international Bankss. Congress made Victor Paz Estenssoro president in August 1985. His authorities tried to halt the sale of cocaine, but he wasn t successful and it made him really unpopular. Jaime Paz Zamora became president of Bolivia in August 1989. The following presidential election, in June 1993, was won by Gonzalo Sanchez de Lozada. Bolivia is hapless. It is one of the lowest paid of all the states in the Americas. Bolivia s authorities tried to do it a better topographic point but it didn t work. But Bolivia has made a batch of advancement since its revolution in 1952. The National Revolutionary Movement made major alterations. The state started edifice schools, roads, wellness attention centres. They started to works harvests, and bore for crude oil. And 1000s of people moved from rural countries to metropoliss. After reading about Bolivia you should recognize that we have a batch here in the United States. The people in Bolivia Don T have sufficient schooling, lodging, or a stable economic system. These people have it a batch worse than we do in the United States. So when you think we have jobs here, think about the people in states like Bolivia and be thankful, non hateful, because we have it a batch better than everybody else.