Breastfeeding is a widely known way of obtaining goodnutrition for babies. It is known to be cost-effective, healthy for the baby,and reduces the risk of disease in both the infant and the woman; however,there are a few reasons to think that breastfeeding would not be in somepopulations that can turn away from such a highly beneficial, nutritionalsource for the baby. Barriers exist in all aspects in caring for an infant andthe method of feeding is highest in that outlook. Reasons for not choosing tobreastfeed and choosing to bottle feed instead include environmental,physiological, and informational factors. In efforts to increase the number ofwomen that breastfeed, medical and nursing staff have pushed for breastfeedingby using interventions already used in the hospital but there are factors aspreviously mentioned that can impede implementing breastfeeding.
Educationis the start for making wise decisions based on strong knowledge of the methodsfor breastfeeding available. Because “women access information aboutbreastfeeding from many non medical sources: media, social groups, familymembers, and cultural practices” (as cited in Sriraman & Kellams, 2016, p.716), it is important for women to receive proper education so that they do notturn away at the first sign of discomfort or failure of the infant to latch onto the nipple.
Although certain populations such as Hispanics have chosen tobreastfeed based on culture, it still pays to learn because there has been ashift in how many Hispanics choose to breastfeed rather than bottle feed due todifference in culture when some Hispanics immigrated to the United States(Hohl, Thompson, Escareño, & Duggan, 2016, p. 1549). Sometimes when mothersfollow a custom without an evidenced-based explanation, the custom can take theplace of a source with proper information or the custom can be easily abandonedand use formula based on new circumstances. As a woman in a study stated inHohl et al. (2017), “We (Hispanics) don’t know much about baby bottles andstuff like that.
What do I know, right? Nobody ever showed me baby bottles.Only breast from my mother” (1551). Although the choice seems safe and a mothercan breastfeed her child based on this rationale, it can be short-term as”Hispanic women in the United States faced economic pressure to work” (Hohl etal.
, 2017, p.1554) and can lose sight of the reason for breastfeeding. Whenmore information is provided to a mother in the postpartum period, the bettershe can lead in her decisions. Interventions areincluded in the plan of care with breastfeeding to avoid problems and for whenevercomplications occur. Engorgement is a common discomfort and can be relieved byusing practical corrective measures. One of them includes using a warm showerin order to decrease discomfort right before breastfeeding occurs (Ricci, Kyle,& Carman, 2017, p. 544). One of the main treatments is completely emptyingthe breasts thereby putting the baby on the breast to feed the baby or usingsome kind of breast pump to release the pressure that’s built up from the milksupply (Ricci et al.
, 2017, p. 544-545). The baby will need some help infinding the nipple as sometimes it can become inverted.
One standard actionthat can be taken is to use breast shells in order to try to reverse the nippleback into place as to protrude (Ricci et al., 2017, p.428). Preventativemeasures can be taken to prevent a lot of what occurs during pregnancy involvesproper mechanics both by the mother and the baby.
Nurses can play a key role inthe hospital by teaching the mother to make sure “the infant to latch on bybringing the infant rapidly to the breast with a wide-open mouth” (Ricci etal., 2017, p.578). If this is done properly, the mother will recognize that thebaby covers as much of the areola as possible to prevent soreness. Ifprevention can take place before discomfort occurs in the breastfeeding mother,then more breastfeeding can take place; however, even interventions used forbreastfeeding discomfort can be troublesome in the experience. When there are physicalbarriers involved in breastfeeding, it can be challenging for mothers to usethis method of feeding because it goes against what popular belief about breastfeeding.
There are already existing comfort measures that breastfeeding mothers can takein order to relieve discomforts but still have flaws in the complete process. Afew obstacles that come with breastfeeding are nipple soreness, invertednipples, engorgement (breasts filled with excessive amounts of breast milk),among others and interventions exist that help the breastfeeding mother asmentioned in Hohl et al. (2016), “…difficulties were surmountable for mostwomen, especially with support and instruction from health workers and familymembers” (1554). Nipple shields have been used to resolve inverted nipples.
Insome cases, however, nipple shields have stood in the way of the breastfeedingexperience as argued in Flacking and Dykes (2017) with preterm infants thathave used nipple shields to help them latch on and have later turned out tofail because by discharge breastfeeding was no longer used as the parents mainfeeding method (8). Some mothers have complained about nipple shields beingused in the hospital as a normal interventions and described it by saying,”They staff went and got a nipple shield. It wasn’t a suggestion; she justgot it as it was the most natural thing to have…You don’t feel that close.
..It’s something in between us” (Flacking & Dyke, 2017, p. 4). Thesuggestions and perceptions of the mother are supposed to be incorporated intothe plan of care in order to have successful outcomes.
Among these problemshave brought difficulties in helping the mother continue breastfeeding becausethey have encountered physical barriers. Breastfeeding was the core ofthe method of feeding an infant but the number of women that do have fluctuateddue to several factors. Breastfeeding remains the best option solely whenreferring to the benefits, however, there are still reasons that overpower thebenefits where some can be changed. Nipple shields have been implemented to noavail in some women that have used them due to varying factors andindividualized approaches. Education with appropriate information that areevidence-based provide women with the best possible decisions based on theknowledge they receive.
Interventions such as instructing mothers during thetimes where breasts become engorged has not changed in the sense that when women’sbreasts become engorged for example, are to continue to breastfeed, take a warmshower, and to use cold compresses during exacerbations (Ricci, Kyle, , 2017, p. 544).