Everything starts with William the vanquisher on Christmas twenty-four hours 1066. William was the male monarch of Westminster abbey and he was acclaimed when he arrived after he crossed the channel. This is the get downing point of the history of modern Britain. Britain is a bland of modernism and tradition. ( Cradle=berceau ) William came and unified the state he besides introduced the thought of a sort of parliament. He unified the state in incorporate the justness. It’s all started in 1066 and it’s in changeless development until today. Definition:
Tyranny= Absolute power vested in a individual swayer. The authorization of the tyrant Tyranny is different that monarchy ( lac of democracy )
Monarchy= the warrant of democracy ( le guarant ) is a province or a state in which the supreme power is really or nominally lodged in a sovereign Democracy= free and equal representation of the people. The members are elected by the people with a cosmopolitan right to vote The parliament = is the supreme legislative organic structure of a major political unit and it is the topographic point for the treatment of public affairs. In Britain it is the British House of Common ( democratic and elective house makes Torahs and look into the work of the authorities ) . Parlement parle ( les elus lupus erythematosuss deputes ) Members of parliament/ le gouvernement gouverne ( les ministres ) .
The historial Landmark ( 6 dynasties )
1 ) The Plantagenets ( les rois d’Angleterre et les reines de France se sont maries partager lupus erythematosus meme royaume pour dominer tout le territoire ) from the 12 th century to 15th. Henry the 2nd married Eleanor d’Aquitaine ( the most of import male monarch ) which mean that de kingdom of France and of England were merely one land by matrimony. The war with France ( of import ) After the Normand conquest the Plant ( 1154- 1485 ) reigned over England 2 ) The Tudors. Henry 8 ( 1509-1547 ) . he killed about of his married woman and he decided to decline the authorization of the Catholic Pope because the Pope refused to allow him disassociate with Catherine of Aragon so he became the caput of the church in England and guardian of the religion. Anne Boleyn was the female parent of Elisabeth. His girl queen Elisabeth the first ( 1558-1603 ) is really of import because she was considered about like a goddess that much of import because we were in the Renaissance. everything happened ( the art was booming ) . She was church of England. she was really tolerant ( she accepted different spiritual ) . Her clip was considered as the aureate age of England. At that clip there was besides war with Spain. There were legion societal reforms about poorness of the hapless on Elisabeth reign. She was the first to make societal reforms.
3 ) The two English revolutions. Charles 1st ( 1625-1649 ) why was he beheaded? Because he socked and was unsafe. He wanted more power than parliament. Cromwell Godhead defender he was the first to utilize de word commonwealth. In 1616 the monarchy was restored with Charles 2st.
Hanoverians are a German dynasty. The first male monarch could non talk in English and when he became male monarch of England as he could non talk he decided to utilize Latin with his curates. Robert walpolethe premier curate ( first prime curate to regulate a province of monarchy which passed peacefully into the premier curate custodies ) of George the first became the caput of power because the existent male monarch didn’t attention about England. he merely cared about Germany. It wasn’t a revolution merely development. The parliament became powerful. The Victoria age ( 1837-1901 ) : longest reign was queen of England Ireland and Empress of India. Glaststone ( broad party ) and Disrails ( conservative party ) were the two most of import premier curates. Victoria and Elisabeth were different. Queen Victoria didn’t truly reign it was the parliament and the authorities. Why was she one of the greatest sovereign of all clip?
She advised the premier curates and had influence on them on the opinion of the imperium. She was no poppet. Besides the clip of the industrial revolution with the rail manner and new machines. Besides the clip of the new societal Torahs ( 1834 ) . instruction ( 1870 ) the surrogate instruction act. Besides the clip of the reform act: we were non in a cosmopolitan right to vote. In the nineteenth century merely people who could pay ( the franchise ) and the reform act helped more people to vote. They took the name of Windsor to sound more English. During the war there are two names to retrieve Haskief and loye. After the war they was a existent demand to societal aid. PM: Clement Atlee. The century was besides a century of decolonisation and queen Elisabeth II came to the throne in 1953. Harold Wilson labour premier curate and Margaret Thatcher from the
THE British CONSTITUTION
There is no British fundamental law. it is built of different elements and those elements are the fundamental law. First there are establishing texts which have been written from the twentieth century. the 2nd component is the legislative acts ( the act of parliament ) . the 3rd component is tradition. usage. the 4th is the work of authorization written by politicians ( Dicey and Badgehot: foremost to compose about the fact that there is no fundamental law and yet there is ) and the fifth is the Common Law ( = justness ) . In England there is no “code civil” . This is the British CONSTITUTION. The first initiation text is Magna Carta 1215 is non an act of parliament but a list of grudges ( doleances ) : Justice should non be delayed. sold or decline to anyone
No individual should be in prison deprived of his belongings or outlawed except by the lawful judgement of his peers or by the jurisprudence of the land. ( Everybody should hold just justness ) No individual should be fined ( amendes ) to his utter ( totale ) ruin. No individual should be deprived of his agencies of support.
The request of Right in 1628 is the 2nd of the establishing text. It was about revenue enhancement. arbitry imprisonment. soldierly jurisprudence in clip of peace.
Habeas Corpus 1679 is still used in many states. ( Depuis ce texte nous Sommes presume guiltless ) “so that you have a organic structure to bring forth it in Court” significance of the cogency of a individual detainment has to be proved. The proved of your guilt must be made. This is the footing of contempory Justice. The Bill of Rights 1688 settled the footing of countempory constitutional jurisprudence. The familial power of the male monarch is replaced by the will of the state through the Parliament: Freedom of address and proceeding ( lancer diethylstilbestrols processs ) in Parliament The reform Act 1832-1884 act to reform the electoral system. They allowed more people to vote. and besides allowed a new division of Britain between fairer constituencies.
The Parliamentary act ( 1911-1949 ) . is the decease certification of the House of Lords.
1972: the European community act Relationship between France and GB has ever been intense.