CHAPTER 2LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 INTRODUCTIONCel shading is a technique used to make 3D rendering of computer generated imagery to look like traditional 2D drawing as opposed to photo-realistic rendering which make a 3D object look the same as real life object. It is often used in video games and animation. In animation, cel shading are used either on a full 3D cel shaded animation or as a mean to blend in 3D object into 2D animation. This technique very common in foreign animation but it is rare to non-existence in local animation. This is because most local animation used actual 3D rendering or go full 2D. Figure 2.1: Cel shading technique used on 3D model 2.2 CEL SHADING IN ANIMATIONCel shading are used in animation either as a stand-alone cel shaded animation or used in a 2D animation to make some 3D object look 2D so it does not look out of places. 2.2.1 Full 3D Cel Shading AnimationNo Artwork Description 1.RWBY is an American anime-style web series an media franchise created by Monty Oum for Rooster Teeth. Figure 184.108.40.206: RWBY animation2.Skyland is a CGI animated series developed in France in parnership with Canada and Luxembourg for television channels France 2, Teletoon, Nicktoons, ABC and CITV Figure 220.127.116.11: Skyland animation3.Slugterra was created by Asaph Fipke and produced by Nerd Corps Entertainment which was released on 2012. Figure 18.104.22.168: Slugterra animation 2.2.2 Cel Shading in 2D AnimationNo. Artwork Description 1.Overlord is an anime series animated by Madhouse Studio. It was adapted from a light novel series written by Kugane Murayama and illustrated by so-bin. The cel shading technique was used in some action scene that involved fighting monsters. The character and monster is actually 3D model but used cel shading technique to make it look same with the overall 2D animation. Figure 22.214.171.124 Overlord anime2.Avatar: The legend of Korra is an animated series made by Nickelodeon Animation Studio. In this animation, cel shading was applied to the moving mechanical things Figure 126.96.36.199: The Legend of Korra animation3.Initial D is an anime series animated by Studio Commet, Studio Gallop, Pastel,A.C.G.T, and SynergySP. It was adapted from a manga series written and illustrated by Shuichi Shigeno. The cel shading was applied to vehicle. Figure 188.8.131.52: Initial D anime 2.3 Cel Shading in Video GamesNo. ArtworkDescription1. Naruto Shippuden Ultimate Ninja Storm series uses cel shading. The cel shading was used to maintain the aesthetics of the original Naruto Shippuden anime series. It was made to look like the original anime even though it is a 3D game. Flat color and thick line were use to make the model look 2D. Figure 2.3.1: Naruto Shippuden: Ultimate Ninja Storm game2.The Legend of Zelda: The Wind Waker is an action-adventure game developed and published by Nintendo for GameCube home video game console. The game uses cel shading technique and cartoonish art direction. Figure 2.3.2: The Legend of Zelda: The Wind Waker3.Ni no Kuni is a video game series developed by Level-5. This game uses cel shading and Studio Ghibli’s art style. Figure 2.3.3 Ni no Kuni 2.4 COMPLEXITY OF MODELS Figure 2.4 Model complexity comparison Figure 2.4 above shows the different in the complexity of the 3D modelling used. On the left side, the designer used a higher number of polygon on the design compared to the one on the right side. A higher poly count model will look more realistic than a low poly count model. So the complexity of the certain 3D model will affect the cel shading technique inte animation. Therefore, the more complex model will look more realistic, so it will make the animation more to realistic 3D animation. 2.5 line, stroke – implementation in cel shadingLine-art can take many different forms depending on the tool being used. There is a difference between a ball-pen and an ink-pen, distinguishing stroke width and direction, and trying to emulate line-art with a 3D software to simulate the hand of an artist is very hard. Figure 2.5 Types of line-art 2.6 CEL SHADING VS SOFT SHADING CELL SHADING SOFT SHADINGFigure 2.6 Differences between cel shading and soft shadingFigure 2.6 above shows the differences between cel shading and soft shading. From the cel shading part, there is a very crisp distinction in color, which is what gives it the more cartoony feel it is usually associated with. From the soft shading part, there is a more natural and realistic kind of look that takes natural gradients of shade into account.