Chapter One: Introduction




Social networks have been progressed a lot in
Madagascar, like Facebook, Instagram and twitter. Due to the evolution of
technologies, the number of Malagasy internet users increases; according to the
site: InternetLiveStats, around 17 million of people are using internet in
Madagascar. This concerns 73% of the population. Though, in 2013 by Internet
Words Stats, the online site Haikajy Mag reported that 2% of the population had
access to internet which is still will (around 400 000 Malagasy).  Haikajy Mag reported that at the beginning,
internet is only for the upper class of society which can afford the luxury
that technologies offer. In fact, internet only seen in business company and
the famous cybercafés that become a trendy way to access internet. As the
purchasing power is very low in the Island, this 2% of population is only
concentrated in the capital: Antananarivo.

There are three different classes of society in the
island, the upper class, the middle class, and the poor people. Obviously, the
rich people are fewer compared to people because as the site actualitix, 75, 3%
of the population are considered as poor and live in bad conditions. That
explains why Internet had not been launched till 2000.

According to the date from World Bank, the number of
internet users in Madagascar started to increase in 2000 but still weak, in
2011, it reached up to 400 000 users.

Madagascar is the 25th country users (rank
Afrika) and 127th among 195 countries (world rank) (World Bank 2017).
The Island is not really at the top concerning Internet use, because the island
is still going through economics and politics economics since 2009, as RFI
reported. It slows down all kinds of development there.


As the access rate is still low, the newspapers L’Express de Madagascar
noticed a strong rebound on the Internet access in the Island in 2015. Within
the data from Artec (Autorite de regulation des technologies de communication),
it states that the rate increased as more than 5%. Indeed, the use of mobile
phone becomes a trend to the youngsters as it is evaluated 49% of users. Recently,as
reported by InternetLiveStats , three operators in Madagascar have simplified
the access of Internet, this increases suddenly the Internet users. These three
operators are, Orange, which offers 1Gb package for 35500 ariary Malagasy (or 1MGA=
0,01MUR); Telma 1GB package for 34500 Ariary Malagasy, and Airtel. This allowed
the different class of the society in the same level when it concerns about
using Internet. The journalists Sandra Hafalianavalona and
Soa-Mihanta Andriamanantena have reported on l’Express de Madagascar that in
the year 2016, more than 36% of youngsters own a mobile phone with internet
access on it, which is already an important number comparing to the lower
purchasing power of the citizen. And 24% of them use social networks.

In fact, there are famous sites that become a real
trend nowadays, among the sites on internet that we use, 5 of them are social
networking sites. And of course, Madagascar is among the social networking
country users, as Mada blog marketing. The most used social networking site in
the Island is Facebook, followed by Youtube and twitter. It is ranked 80% of
the users are Facebook users.

By analysing the graphic, StatCounter Global Stats
shows on the graphics the most Social Media Sites in Madagscar from 2009 to
2019. On May 2009, only 40% of internet users connect to Facebook, this has
been increasing during the following month and continued to rise up to 80% on
June 2010.

The following graphics below represents that the
number of users continue rising starting from july 2010, and this rate almost
reached up to 90% on October 2012.



Basically, in 2015, l’Express de Madagascar concluded
that around 600 000 people are Facebook users, as far as the survey from
INSTAT ( Institut National de la Statistiques) over the last five years. These
statistics allow us to overview the evolution of the social media in Madagascar
as well as its impacts on Malagasy people.

Indeed, Facebook become easy to access because some of
the mobile operators ameliorate more and more its services by offering
customers the famous free access to Facebook, this is the case of Orange.
Teenagers are more interested on it and it let them to connect to Facebook all
day to improve their skills and knowledge as if Facebook was the only site on
internet, as the site InternetLiveStats reported. The article Haikajy Mag (on November 2014) informed online
that there are nearly 400 000 Facebook accounts which are Malagasy users. Effectively,
Malagasy people see Facebook as the easier way to access internet because it is
the most used site in the Island. According to Haikajy Mag again, there had
been a survey that exposed some Malagasy youngsters get information and news on
Facebook, the news diffused on television are less watched. It keeps them
distract and disconnected from reality. A personal blog: Ampela miblaogy (wrote
by Ariniaina, a Malagasy blogger) revealed on February 2011 that the youngsters
become more and more addicted to social media.

In the recent year 2017, when the baccalaureate exam results were
displayed, it is noticed that the success rate was 44,48% in the capital
Antananarivo, while it was 40% the year before, said Ny Aina Rahaga in tribune
de Madagascar. The newspapers Midi Madagascar stated the rate up to 39% in 2015,
39,37% in 2014 and 47,59% in 2013 The past five years exposes then the average
rate of candidates who success which is around 40%. While RFI stated that it
went from 50% in 2011. This evaluation shows a problem of education level that
causes the decline of success.

Apparently, Facebook impacts children’s education
negatively in Madagascar, there had been a drop-in success rate of
baccalaureate in the capital of Madagascar as the newspapers Midi Madagasikara
reported on September 2014, the drop is about 8, 21%. Parents and teachers
complain and wonder whether the intellectual level of the candidates went down
because of the Famous Facebook. Some teachers in the secondary school affirmed
that teenagers nowadays are lack of concentration and maturity at school
because they are distracted on technologies particularly on Facebook.
Therefore, still reported on the newspapers: Midi Madagasikara and on the site, children cannot master their feeling and education at the same
time which lead to the bad results of exam. Facebook obsessed and monopolized
Malagasy students in the capital as it becomes their daily lives to check their
smartphone all the time. Facebook is for them used as tools for documentation
and distraction, they usually online to discuss with friends, shares photos and
videos. Whether in class or at home, they are busy to update their profile,
like different pages, they become addicted and forget to focus on their
objectives and studies.

Facebook in term of educations are crucial to evocate
how importance is being media literate. That is why the research study portray
the rise of the number of students in Antananarivo connected on Facebook, the
negative impacts that changed the success rate of the students at secondary
level and will focus on the advantages of using Facebook in order to ameliorate
education’s methods.



Compared to other countries, Madagascar is an Island
which has not the effective use of internet yet due to the poor access of
internet. This is because of the high cost of internet access which is not
appropriated to the lower purchasing power of the citizen. But due to 3G which
is internet mobile, everyone can connect on it. The Island own various
operators which let people to have facility in affording the cost of internet.
The pictures below will show the differ packages offered by the three important
operators in Madagascar:

Orange Madagascar has first of all the package also
call “BE CONNECT”, there are many offers depending on price and the validity,
starting from 200 Ariary to 275 000 Ariary Malagasy, customers can
purchase up to 50Gb. Orange also offers free access to Facebook called “Akama”
with 500 Mo per week.





Telma Madagascar also proposes different offers for
one month starting from 250 Mo to 50Go and can reach up to 195 000 Ariary
Malagasy which is more affordable than Orange offers.

And Airtel Madagascar that has monthly package for its
clients from 1Go to 15Gb with bonus included, the price is up to 180 000
Ariary Malagasy.

The three operators are in competition to gain more and
more clients; hence, these various packages let people to choose their
preferred operator to access internet with their devices.,Malagasy youngsters
use then lot technologies devices like smartphone and laptop to connect on
internet. In consequence, social media has become a trend that young people
follow in the capital. A book titled: “Developpement des Medias a Madagascar”
states that the augmentation of the cybercafe in the capital Antananarivo
proves the rise of Internet users. More than 20% of the population are
connected regularly.

The study will concern more about teenagers around 17
et 19 years old, which is the middle age of the candidates on the exam
according to News Mada. However, the youngest candidate is twelve years old (Bac
2017). The research and survey focus then in teen age. Around 73 000
candidates were registered while the number of the candidates was 69 000
in 2015.

Facebook users are classified depending on their age,
on what they do in life whether worker or student, and on devices they used.


A survey has been done by ATW consultants Madagascar
about the active Facebook users, and reported that 55% of women and 45% of men
are connected daily, 60% of young use Facebook as well, so the most active is
the teenage under 25 years old, independent workers and employees. They are
connected daily, during working hours via smartphone or computer.

As the topic shows, the research will be based only in
the capital as it is the source of the evolution of social media. There, people
are more connected and updated on everything. Therefore, it is a good subject
to study and to get surveys. In addition to that, 74397 candidates are
registered to pass the exam in Antananarivo, one more reason to focus on it
(News Mada).



How does Facebook impact on education at secondary

What is Facebook used for teenagers in the capital?

Why did Baccalaureate success rate go down over the
past 5 years?

What are the effects that Facebook causes the failure
of exams in the capital?

How social media makes changes on daily lives of the

By analysing those questions, the research evaluates
the actual state of the exam results of the baccalaureate in Antananarivo as
well as the negatives impacts of being permanently connected on this famous
social media. It also evaluates on the success rate over the last 5 years. It
will go on details about how and for what students used Facebook, Hence, it
concentrates on the change brought by Facebook to youngsters facing on their

RFI Afrique reported that the success rate of
baccalaureate in Antananarivo was 50% in 2011 and had tumble down 39% in 2014.
Facebook is one of the source that influences youngsters so that is why the
research is based on it. In fact, Facebook has become the most used social
media in the capital. The research methods and the analysis will explain importance
of the topics and will analyse the surveys about it.

Baccalaureate is a big bridge for Malagasy that
separates childhood to adult age, it defines maturity of a student. Once a
student gets his baccalaureate, he can be considered as an adult person that is
responsible of its acts. It determines the independence of a person in his
entire life. Passing this exam is source of pride for that person and his entire
family. It also helps him or her to open his path on his study.

The interest of the Facebook users is apparently
divided according to the image above (ATW Consultants Madagascar). In the first
place the humoristic pages 48%, then the pages that consists of selling and
doing business.

As we can see, Facebook influences more people and make
them obsessed by offering many distractions. As the site,
people use It to create group or pages that permit them to make their business
works. There are some that interested on wedding packages, phone sales and so
on, some of them are more attracted about social life and actualities. Of
course, it gives a lot of temptations to the candidates not to be concentrate
on their study despite of those many various reasons. In Antananarivo, by PIGE
MEDIA, there are many pages and groups for accessories sales, clothes. In fact,
people can get many opportunities by using Facebook.

Thus, many companies had created its online Facebook
page after observing the evolution of social media in the Island, such as, U.S.
Embassy Madagascar, Madagascar en photos, Orange Madagascar.

Research Objectives:

The objectives of the research are the following:

state baccalaureate exam results at secondary level over the last five years

represent the side effects on the education of using a lot social media at
secondary school.

analyse the importance of using Facebook in a good way for students.

evaluate and analyze the use of social media and some theories which concerns
social media.

explore that studying media literacy makes students aware of what and how they
use Facebook ethically and consciously in order not to affect their education.

demonstrate how Social Media influences the new generation nowadays.


Dissertation structure:

Chapter Number


Chapter 1: Introduction

the main idea of the work, which the study of: the social networks especially
Facebook in Madagascar, the low success rate of baccalaureate and the kinds
of distractions that technologies provide. Details of the percentage of
baccalaureate results, the side effects on the excess use of Facebook.

Chapter 2: 
Literature Review

of the articles, journals, books used during the research. Critical analyses
of the information gathered.

Chapter 3: Research Methodology

the steps, gives the explanation and the process of the brainstorming of the

Chapter 4: Findings and Analysis

the collected data that demonstrates the research and present the results
gathered based on the research objectives.

Chapter 5: Recommendations and Conclusion

the role of Media Literacy for students to reduce failure. Summary of the
main concept of the work and any propositions that can ameliorate the field
of the research.




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