Computer-assistedtranslation, also known as CAT tools, is a translation programme that allows atranslator to use computer software to help them with translations.Déjà vu X3 is an example of a CATtool that aids translators when translating certain documents, it is especiallyuseful for texts that will be modified over time, for example, car manuals dueto the specific features the programme uses for example, term bases,translation memories and other automatic functions.  Term base (TB)Creating aterm base is simple, I explored features of creating the terms in excel thenuploading the terms straight to the empty term base directly from excel, makingthe process quick and hassle free. A term base is a file that stores terms from the textthat is being translated and, much like the translation memory, is usually inmultilingual format. It also shows additional information such as Parts ofspeech, Gender, Number and context.  Here is anexample of what a standard term entry looks like when editing.

With the termbase, I added a definition section as some terms were difficult to interpret.For example, La Rada Suprema didn’thave a literal translation so under the definition section, I explained that,from research is seemed it was a government in Ukraine, making it useful whenit came to translating the text. It was also useful for any Hungarian that wasin the text, or places in Ukraine or Hungary that I had not heard of, so that Iknew why they had not been translated. When firstcreating the term base, I struggled to locate specific terms in the text so I attemptedto use the lexicon feature in the project. The project lexicon shows a list ofall the phrases or words in the translation. However, this created too manyterms and I found it difficult to narrow down to about 6 to 8 terms so I abandonedthis feature.Whentranslating, the term is already in the memory and translates automaticallywhen working on the segment the term is in, making sure the translation is anexact match as it already recognises the term.

As well as this, it alsoidentifies terms in the segment under the one being worked on and willautomatically translate the term ready for the translator to use. This supportsthe task by ensuring the term is used effectively in the segment and that thereare not different translations throughout the text. Translation Memory (TM)A translationmemory is a file that stores the segments from the translation that havealready been translated. The translation memory keeps the source text and thetarget language in translation units which makes it clear for the humantranslator to use.In déjà vu x3, the translation memory is multilingual andmultidirectional. Meaning that you can change the source and the target texts,see the TM from start to finish and filter the text.I attemptedto set up filters in the translation memory however I did not have extensiveknowledge of SQL statements and therefore this was difficult to do.

It is veryeasy to add a new segment into the translation memory window through the edittab which is similar to the term base however you can only see one targetsegment at a time in the translation memory. An extra feature that can be veryuseful to translators is that the translation interface can sort translation memoriesalphabetically, making it clear for the translator to see the TM they areworking onThetranslation memory helps mostly when modifying a translation. Due to thetranslation memory storing certain segments, if they are then in anothertranslation, for example the second modified text, it will identify if thereare certain segments in the new translation that are the same. Because of this,the translation memory only supports the translation task when translating thesecond text and is not as effective as the term base for the translation task. I added thetranslation memory after I had translated the first text.

I did this by firstlycreating a blank translation memory, then under project, there is a button thatis called ‘add to translation memory’ and this puts the whole text into thetranslation memory. This ensured that the segments in the translation memorywere the correct translations making it very useful when translating the secondtext. However, whenmerging the translation memory with my partners, the newly merged translationmemory would not open automatically and we would have go to ‘tools’ and ‘repair’so it would open which lead to déjà vu crashing multiple times and slowed downthe whole translation process. Project/ Editing environment Déjà vu x3 has a row of tabs that are similar to many MicrosoftOffice programmes. It has File, Home, Project, Lexicon, Insert, View andReview. This makes it useful for translators who often use Microsoft office programmesas the similarities will make accessing certain features easier. This is due tothe smart view feature which allows everything to be easily accessible like aword document, making it quick to import, export, pre-translate, create newprojects or translation memories and term bases.It is usefulthat you can open multiple documents on Déjà vu x3 so that I could work on theproject, term base and translation memory at once.

It also allows you to workon different projects that use the same term bases and translation memorieswhich was very useful when working on the modified text. The main bodyof the text if very clear to see, with the source text on the left and thetarget text on the right with the text split up into segments. I was surprisedto see that some of the segments were not split by sentences but more so in themiddle of sentences, this means that I had to be aware of the grammar I wasusing in each segment so that the sentence would make sense as a whole.  Pre-translateWhenimporting the second text to déjà vu, I looked at the features available whenpre-translating the new text. At first, I only selected ‘repair fuzzy matches’and lock guaranteed matches, which only pre-translated a few segments. This wasbecause the second text contained a lot of different sentences and a differentstructure to the first text.

However, I then also selected ‘assemble fromportions’ and ‘use DeepMiner statistical extraction’ as this attempts totranslate from other fragments in both texts. Deepminer takes information from the translation project and thetranslation memory database to find terms and sentences that it thinks will beuseful in your empty segments and this will then often repair fuzzy matches andwill make the translation even more precise  Here is the pre-translated text using the ‘DeepMiner’selection, all the fragments that are in blue and are underlined weretranslated through this selection, as you can see it does not translatesentences but more so single words or phrases as well as terms from the termbase. Unfortunately, this was not as effective as I would have liked as when Iwent to then translate the segments, unless I used the exact words from theDeepMiner settings, a little red exclamation mark came up to say thetranslation was not correct. And in some segments the words needed to change tofit the context and the sentence structure.I then triedto use auto propagate as this tends to translate all segments that are the sameas the one that has just been translated and will never propagate into a fuzzy match,however because the modified text was so different this also did not help withthe blank segments. Fuzzy matchesThe fuzzymatches and exact matches were mainly in the second text, especially the fuzzymatches. This is due to the work of the translation memory.

I found it verydifficult to repair the fuzzy matches I had in the modified text. One segmentin particular was very interesting to try and repair as it showed that the segmentwas only 84% translated and even when certain words were changed in thesegment, there was still a 16% fuzzy match. Fuzzy matches generally repair withthe help of the translation memory as it will delete the incorrect part of thetranslation and suggest a better translation from the memoryHowever, thisdid not happen with the fuzzy matches, even when I pre-translated the textusing the DeepMiner feature. Other featuresof Déjà vu X3 Autowrite isa feature that will automatically suggest terms or phrases with the help of theterm base and translation memory that it deems suitable for the segment you areworking on. This often happens when translating and is seen above the cursor ina small, white text box and when pressing enter, the phrase or sentence autowrite has suggested, will automatically enter the segmentI found that AutoWrite was one of the best features whenworking on the text as the suggestions made the process easier and quicker todo  Auto checkwill check to see if the segments you have translated are correct. This is doneby pressing control then the down arrow on the keyboard. At times, you can getinconsistent translations that are shown through exclamation marks. However, I foundthat the DeepMiner setting showed that most of my segments that DeepMiner hadtranslated parts of, created inconsistent translations because in some segmentsI did not use the specific words or phrases even though the translation wascorrect.

Therefore, I had disable auto check, which could hinder the accuracyof the rest of the translation. Format tags are often hyperlinks that link to a photo orweb page that usually add extra context to the text however déjà vu x3 does notrecognise format tags when translating.It is veryimportant in déjà vu x3 to keep the tags in the same place that they are in thesentence from the source text, this is because it could hinder the structure ofthe translation and the tags would then be misplaced when viewing the exportedfile, creating, possibly and unreadable translation. Therefore, it is vital tocheck tags that have been placed, this can be done by going to ‘review’ and ‘checktags’ or there is also the shortcut of shift and f8. Even though Idid not have any tags in my first translation, I ensured that I understood howto use them before the second translation in case there were some in thatsection, however, there were none in the second translation also.

 Segment statusesThe state of thesegments is indicated by the coloured bars shown to the left of the translatedtext. A list of what all the colours indicate can be seen at the top of theproject in a drop-down menu. Ones that were frequently used in my translationwere dark green, light green, orange, dark blue and the black tick.  Here is ascreenshot of the segment statuses and what each colour indicates.     To conclude, Déjà vu X3 is veryuseful for translators who want to translate texts quickly and efficientlyespecially through the help of the term base and the translation memory.

As wellas this, other features such as auto write or pre-translate are useful formodified texts and even though it is quick to open or load projects, theprogramme is prone to crashing and I often had to use the repair tool with themerged translation memory. Overall the translation process was easy to do dueto the features that would not be possible for a human translator to do in ashort period of time. 

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