Containment Policy Essay, Research Paper
During the Truman disposal, a containment policy was developed. The policy finally became the cardinal construct specifying U.S. foreign policy in the Cold War.
To incorporate Soviet Communism, President Harry Truman used American military and fiscal resources to assist reconstruct Western Europe after World War II. Under the Truman Doctrine, President Truman requested Congress for financess to construct up Turkey and Greece, two states that came under force per unit area from the Soviet Union. Truman stated that, & # 8221 ; It must be the policy of the United States to back up free peoples who are defying attempted subjection by armed minorities by outside force per unit areas & # 8221 ; . By developing the Truman Doctrine, he created a major, common defence pact to keep Soviet aggression. This philosophy was besides designed to assist European states withstand Soviet Communism after the World War II. The program was to portion American accomplishments such as cognition, capital, and equipment with most states in Western Europe. Included in this program was the constitution of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization ( NATO ) . This organisation chief intent was to support Western Europe against Soviet Bloc. After President Truman? s disposal, Presidents such as Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson have besides tried to keep this policy in many ways.
Dwight Eisenhower did many things to keep the policy of containment of Communism developed during the Truman disposal. In fact, his foreign policy was built around it. The two chief ends were to hold a tough stance in the Cold War against communism and the care of peace. He and his Secretary of State, John Dulles, were aggressive anti-Communists and advocators of the release of Soviet-dominated states. In September 1954, Eisenhower and Dulles succeeded in making the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization ( SEATO ) . Its chief intent was to forestall farther Communist enlargement in Southeast Asia. In a message to Congress on January 5, 1957, Eisenhower laid out a proposal that came to be known as the Eisenhower philosophy. He proposed that the U.S. should utilize armed force to help any state in the Middle East that requests its aid against Communist aggression.
In the last twelvemonth of the Eisenhower presidential term, the Central Intelligence Agency had equipped and trained a brigade of anti-Communist Cuban expatriates for an invasion of their fatherland. The Joint Chiefs of Staff nem con advised the new president that this force, one time ashore, would trip a general rebellion against the Cuban leader, Fidel Castro. However, the Bay of Pigs invasion was a debacle ; every adult male on the beach was either killed or captured. Furthermore, after the failure at Bay of Pigs, Soviet leader Nikita Kruschchev started build uping Cuba more to a great extent with missile. This lead to the Cuban Missile Crisis. Forced to turn out himself, Kennedy demanded that the missile sites be dismantled and removed from Cuba. To endorse up his ultimatum, he ordered a naval encirclement to Cuba. On October 28, Radio Moscow announced that the weaponries would be removed and returned to Moscow. During John F. Kennedy old ages as President, he did many things to keep the policy of containment of Communism. The Cuban Missile Crisis was one illustration. During his admin
istration, a state in Southeast Asia encountered a job with Communism. The battle was between North Vietnam, a communists part, and South Vietnam, an anti-Communist part. Kennedy so sent U.S. military advisors to the country to help the South Vietnamese in contending the North Vietnamese. Among the advisors was a former Republican senator and vice-presidential campaigner, Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. Therefore recommending the containment policy created by Harry Truman disposal. In July 1963, Russia, the United States, and Great Britain signed a pact censoring atomic testing in the ambiance, outer infinite, and under H2O. The pact avoided the issue of internal reviews, which had made old peace dialogues unresolved.
President Lyndon Johnson did non originate American engagement in Vietnam. Truman, Eisenhower, and Kennedy laid the basis for US intercession. However, the Vietnam War would come to be seen as Johnson & # 8217 ; s war. It would rule non merely his full foreign policy, but overshadow his ambitious domestic plans. Since the stopping point of the 1954 Geneva Convention, when Vietnam was split in two, the Vietnamese Communists had been carry oning what they termed a conflict for release. Their declared end was a Vietnam unified under the leading of Ho Chi Minh. Military strategians in the US, nevertheless, saw a crawl Red threat, poised to enfold all of Southeast Asia. China had already been & # 8220 ; lost & # 8221 ; to the Communists. Visions of falling dominoes haunted the Pentagon and the Johnson? s disposal. Early on in 1964, Johnson had his staff draw up a congressional declaration that would let him to spread out the war as he deemed necessary. On August, the U.S.S. Maddox, an American destroyer policing the Tonkin Gulf in Vietnam, reported that it had been the mark of a torpedo onslaught by North Vietnamese patrol boats. Two yearss subsequently, a extremely disputed 2nd onslaught was alleged to hold taken topographic point. Such supposed aggravation on the portion of the North Vietnamese was all Johnson needed to show his declaration to a compliant Congress. The Gulf of Tonkin declaration sailed through Congress in 40 proceedingss. It passed nem con in the House and encountered merely two dissidents in the Senate. American policy shapers concluded that the United States must play the lead function in incorporating China, as it had in incorporating the Soviet Union. The new containment policy focused on South Vietnam, where, get downing in the late fiftiess, the radical Vietcong had been seeking to subvert a authorities that had American support. The Vietcong had support from Communist North Vietnam, a state with ties to China. Johnson came to office convinced that the United States had to honour its committednesss to South Vietnam and defy the revolution, but he was convinced besides that success depended chiefly on the South Vietnamese.
Throughout the Cold War Era, the chief focal point was about containment of Communism. First developed in the Truman disposal, it continued to the Johnson disposal where it dealt with Vietnam. From Truman to Johnson, the thought of containment of Communism was apparent. Such organisations as NATO and SEATO, are apparent achievements that demonstrate the attempt of seeking to keep the policy of containment of Communism throughout the Cold War.