contour error are our primary concern than
axial tracking errors. In this figure, the desired path is shown as solid line
while the actual path taken is shown by dashed line. The figure also illustrate
an instance of time t when the desired position of the tool, as provided by the
outputs of the interpolator is at R. While, because of axial tracking errors,
the actual position of the tool is at P. From the figure it can be easily seen
that depending upon the relative magnitude of the axial tracking errors ,it is
well possible to have zero contour errors even for non- zero axial tracking



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Controlling a
machine tool by means of a prepared programme which contain numerical data
specifying the desired motion of the machine’s axis is called as numerical
control (NC). NC is founded by US Air Force in the early 1950s, after that
computer numeric control was developed. In CNC monitor the movement of machines
based on CAM/CAD programmes. The machine can be milling, lathe, router, laser
or waterjet cutter, robot etc.

   The CNC controller work together with a
series motors and drive components to move and control the machine axes, executing
the programmed motions. In CNC our desired model drawing using any type of CAD
programme in computer and at three axes there was thee different stepper motor
for each axis motion of this axis is based on the motion of the stepper motors
the computer connect to the interface, it will help the signal from the
computer to a form that the CNC machine can use. That mean our desired model
drawing is decoded to G-code for CNC can read only G-code or ISO code. The signal
from the interface control the movement of the cutting tool  A CNC machine tool is always a slide table
and spindle. The machine table is controlled the X and Y axis motion and
spindle is controlled Z axis motion. The Fig.2 represent the 3 axes CNC







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