This is an of import concern construct and must ne’er be confused with net income. The part of a merchandise refers to how much it contributes to the fixed costs and net income of the concern one time variable costs have been covered. It can be calculated either per unit of end product or in footings of entire part of all units produced. Contribution ignores fixed costs and lone considers any excess left one time variable costs have been subtracted from gross. Hence. part is what a merchandise contributes towards the fixed costs of the concern and. once these are paid. the net incomes of the concern. Directors need to cognize. every bit accurately as possible. the cost of each merchandise or service produced by the house. One ground for this is the demand to do a pricing determination.
In fact. purchasers of many merchandises will desire an estimated monetary value or a citation before they agree to buy. Directors may besides necessitate to make up one’s mind whether production should be stopped. stepped up or switched to new methods or new stuffs. Directors besides need to compare existent merchandise costs with original budgets and to compare the current period with past clip periods. In ciphering the cost of a merchandise. both direct labour and direct stuffs are frequently easy to place and apportion to each merchandise. For case. the stuffs used in doing merchandise Ten are allocated straight to the cost of that merchandise. These are non the lone costs involved.
Overheads. or indirect costs. can non be allocated straight to each merchandise but must be ‘shared’ between all of the points produced by a concern. There is more than one bing method that can be used to allocate these costs and. hence. there may be more than one reply to the inquiry: ‘How much does a merchandise cost to bring forth? ’ part bing method that merely allocates direct costs to cost/profit centres non overhead costs. This attack to bing solves the job of how to allocate or split overhead costs between merchandises – it does non allocate them at all. Alternatively. the method concentrates on two really of import accounting constructs:
•Marginal cost is the cost of bring forthing an excess unit. This excess cost will clearly be a variable direct cost. For illustration. if the entire cost of bring forthing 100 units is $ 400 000 and the entire cost of bring forthing 101 units is $ 400 050. the fringy cost is $ 50. •The part to fixed costs and net income. This is the gross gained from selling a merchandise less its variable direct costs. This is non the same as net income. which can merely be calculated after operating expenses have besides been deducted. For illustration. if that 101st unit with a variable ( fringy ) cost of $ 50 is sold for $ 70. it has made a part towards fixed costs of $ 20. The unit part is found as the difference between the sale monetary value ( $ 70 ) and the excess variable cost ( $ 50 ) . that is $ 20.