What is civilization? Lederach ( 1995 ) defines civilization as “ the shared cognition and strategies created by a set of people for comprehending, construing, showing, and reacting to the societal worlds around them. ” When we think of civilization, normally we think traditions, nutrient, linguistic communication, apparels, faith and behaviour. These traits can alter over clip if and when a peculiar topographic point adapts or incorporates the civilization of another. This can either hold a positive or negative consequence on the civilization of that topographic point.
Mumbai is located on the Salsette Island which lies at the oral cavity of Ulhas River off the western seashore of Maharashtra India in the coastal part known as the Konkan. Mumbai is classified as a city of India, under the legal power of the Brihan Mumbai Municipal Corporation. It consists of two distinguishable parts, the Mumbai City District and Mumbai Suburban District. The metropolis part is besides normally referred to as the Island City by most media publications.
There are many sorts of dishes that are native to the province of Maharashtra. Many of which are available in wayside fast nutrient. Other popular culinary arts include Lebanese, Korean, Thai, Italian, Mexican and Chinese. Mumbai is one of the most broad metropoliss in India, encompassing constructs that would be considered tabu in other parts of the state. Mumbai ‘s civilization has been to a great extent influenced by western civilization which gives many tourers acquaintance. Some could reason that Mumbai has already lost a batch of its civilization to cosmopolitan civilization.
Climate in Mumbai is warm and humid. There are four seasons the metropolis experiences. During the months of December to February, cool weather exists from December to February and hot conditions from March to May. The monsoon season lasts from June to September and is followed by the post-monsoon season, which lasts through October and November, when the conditions is once more hot. Monthly temperatures vary from 91 grades in May to 67 grades Fahrenheit in January. Annual rainfall is about 70 inches with an norm of 24 happening in July entirely.
Before touristry development, Mumbai ( once Bombay ) was originally a group of seven islands on the Konkan coastline, occupied by Koli fishermen. It was n’t until Sultan Muhamed Begada took over the islands, where Mumbai was colonized by the Hindus. A Lusitanian traveller named Vasco district attorney Gama was the first individual to research the path to Mumbai which led to the find of the islands and the onslaught by the Portuguese to capture the islands in 1534.
The Portuguese built a parish, several garrisons and churches, but realized there was no value in them. In 1661, Catherine of Braganza, sister of the Portuguese King, offered these islands as a gift to Charles II of England. Having no usage for the islands, Charles II leased them to the British East India Company in 1661. This was the beginning of British regulation. This trading company built docks, trading stations, and garrisons because of its strategic location.
Mumbai developed into an of import trading station. Governer Gerald Aungier persuaded business communities from all over the state to come and settle in Mumbai. Mumbai developed into a major commercial centre. In the eighteenth century, population increased significantly and by the nineteenth century there was building of edifices, memorials, railroad Stationss, offices, Bankss. With the debut of the Great Indian Peninsular Railways, the metropolis received an improved agencies of transit.
After India ‘s independency from British regulation in 1947, India was restructured into Bombay province. In 1960 when, Maharashtra province came to existence, Bombay, now Mumbai became the capital.
There are positive effects touristry can hold on a finish. One illustration would be the host communities ‘ occupants sharing their civilization in add-on to those sing the communities. Other benefits may include the host may include community pride, tolerance and a stronger sense of cultural individuality ( Velachis, 2010 ) . The other positive effects of touristry are the cultural exchange, the revival of local traditions, and an enhanced image for the community.
The perceptual experience of India to westerners is of an alien finish. Then there negative images still associated with it such as poorness, hapless wellness, sanitation, and inferior substructure ( Jafari, 2000 ) . Tourism in Mumbai would hold a positive consequence on the community as it would interrupt the stereotyped perceptual experience of India. Mumbai is the definition of urban India. It can be said that Mumbai the New York of India, as it is the metropolis that ne’er sleeps with its occupants taking a fast-paced life and high rise constructions.
The engagement of the local communities is an of import factor for visitant satisfaction. The hosts for touristry are the local community and they participate straight in the touristry experience, assisting to specify the sense of topographic point and ambiance of parts ( Arzeni, 2009 ) . The support of the local community is indispensable in developing cultural experiences for tourers. Ever since the success of the movie, Slumdog Millionaire, slum touristry has been a turning attractive force in India. The Dharavi slum, located in Mumbai, is the largest slum in Asia. This Slumdog scene is what grew people ‘s wonder. Slum touristry can hold a positive impact by presenting the positive side of the slums and chase awaying the negative. Besides the obvious economic benefits it brings, it can give tourers some penetration to their lives and make consciousness of the state of affairs. Despite the poorness and its black visual aspect, the people populating in these slums are difficult working with a strong spirit and sense of community ( Ward, 2010 ) . It can alter the preconceived impression they may hold had about these slums.
It can be seen as a positive that there is a combination of Mumbai civilization every bit good as Western civilization. Many locals in Mumbai celebrate both these civilization. Many festivals held in Mumbai allow tourers to hold a expression into the Mumbai civilization because they are able to observe along with the locals while at the same clip interacting with them. This common relation encourages a cross-cultural communicating that can back up understanding between the host and invitees ( Valachis, 2009 ) . Residents likewise are educated about the universe outside without go forthing their places, while visitants learn well about a alone civilization.
Another positive result that touristry brings is to Mumbai ‘s economic system. The full state of India is dependent on touristry, as touristry is its largest service industry. Tourism in Mumbai has served as a tool for income and employment coevals, lessoning poorness and sustainable human development. It contributes 6.23 % to the national GDP and 8.78 % of the entire employment in India ( Tourism Statistics, 2008 ) . Business touristry is rapidly turning and harmonizing to the World Travel and Tourism Council, an international touristry trade organisation, Indian concern touristry will lend over $ 14.2 billion to the economic system in 2011. Not merely does this profit the economic system, it will let concern traveller a glance of Mumbai ‘s civilization and give the chance to research diverse activities in apposition to their concern dockets.
The common impacts in the finish occur from the tourer activities. These impacts include the revival or commoditization, the commercialisation of traditional civilizations, the loss of cultural genuineness, the devastation of the heritage and historical sites by the swarming of tourers.
It can be argued that one of the strongest marks of such impacts is the loss of native linguistic communication as a consequence of an invasion of tourer linguistic communications ( Velachis, 2009 ) . The official linguistic communication of the metropolis of Mumbai is Marathi with merely 42 % of the population who are fluid. Other than Hindi being one of the major linguistic communications in Mumbai, English in prevalent. As concern touristry in India additions, English is widely spoken in commercial communicating and the professional work force ( Fulton, 2009 ) . With the major linguistic communications of Hindi and English, Bombay Hindi was developed, a pidgin that is widely spoken in Mumbai integrating Marathi, Hindi and English. The alterations in linguistic communication, has been associated in add-on to alterations in attitudes and behaviour.
Other harmful impacts touristry can make are to its attractive forces. The cardinal facet as to why people travel. The Girgaum Chowpatty is one of the most celebrated public beaches and one of the oldest beaches in Mumbai. With the many hotels nearby, Chowpatty draws a great figure of tourers. Residents of Babulnath which faces Chowpatty, fright that the heritage, holiness and aesthetics of the country will be flawed ( Thanawala, 2006 ) . Another attractive force that is in danger is the Elephanta Caves, which was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Elephanta ‘s close propinquity to Mumbai and international repute as a chef-d’oeuvre has come at an unsustainable degree of touristry ( Mink, 2009 ) . There has been small attempt at continuing the statues and hapless crowd control conducted by the governments. As a consequence, the already damaged sculptures are in danger of farther debasement.
Harmonizing to Mathieson and Wall ( 1982 ) , one of the major impacts on civilization finish is the transition of the stuff and non-material constructions of local civilization, which are called revival or commoditization. The Mumbai Tourism Development Corporation has created legion sums of festivals specifically to advance touristry in the metropolis. A figure of cultural activities including, dance and music narrations are held during these celebrations in order for tourers to be able to detect the civilization of Mumbai. Tourism can turn local civilizations into trade goods when spiritual rites, traditional cultural rites and festivals are reduced and to fit to tourist outlooks.
When tourers get a holiday as a bundle, they besides purchase civilization as a bundle. Despite how ancient or composite the finish civilization is, it is lessoned to a few recognizable peculiarity. Examples such as humanistic disciplines and trades, dance, music, edifices and festivals or ceremonials are promoted as a trade good ( Mathieson and Wall, 1982 ) . The Elephanta Festival in Mumbai is a cultural festival created to honour and mark Indian dance, sculpture and art. It is a major attractive force for locals every bit good as the adjacent metropolis. What is suppose to a be tribute to classical performing artists and an enterprise to popularise Indian classical dance and heritage art signifier found its chief intent in seeking to advance touristry in the province, as it was organized by the Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation.
Another negative impact that touristry creates in the civilization of a finish is that the put the desires and involvement of the tourer without respect to the locals who may hold had households and friends that were killed. This was another manner for the metropolis to do net income. A tragic event occurred on November 26, 2008 when the terrorist onslaughts destroyed memorials and injured and killed 100s of people. This event struck a new found “ terror touristry. ” ( Shatterjee, 2008 ) . Travelers congregate to the memorials of the Taj hotel, Gateway of India, Cama infirmary and Nariman house, which were under panic onslaughts. Visible slug Markss on walls, Windowss and roofs, damaged parts and reinstated constructions. There has been an addition of local tourers and foreign travellers to Mumbai because of this panic touristry. There are even tour ushers and bureaus that will give elaborate descriptions on the events and demo the assorted topographic points that were under the besieging.
Although this panic touristry brought the in a set of tourer, it ca n’t be denied the impact it had on India ‘s touristry industry. Not merely did the onslaught affect leisure travel to Mumbai, it rippled through the full state with cancellations of hotel engagements. Business travel has besides affected the concern touristry as many companies have asked employees to curtail travel to India. The aftermath of this onslaught has doubtless impacted this finish negatively.
While retaining the traditional image of cultural touristry in India, variegation of the touristry merchandise would go on, chiefly in the Fieldss of leisure, escapade and convention, therefore reacting to the altering consumer demands ( Menon, 1993 ) . Mumbai blends old traditions with new and modern civilization. Mumbai is known as the concern and amusement capital and known for the exciting nightlife one can see, but non for the historic memorials. Small attempt was made in continuing the few memorials they already had. If tourers were looking for the old India, it would discourage tourers to see other parts of India, which could ache the image of Mumbai for being excessively commercialized. Mumbai is at the point of standardisation. This means the procedure of carry throughing tourers desires ( Arzeni, 2009 ) . The landscape, adjustment, nutrient and drinks, etc. , must run into the tourers ‘ desire for the new and unfamiliar, they must at the same clip non be excessively new or uneven because really small tourers really want to see wholly new things.
Aurangabad, another metropolis in the province of Maharashtra was named the Tourism capital of Maharashtra. Like many other metropoliss in Maharashtra, it is portion of the urban conurbation that includes, Mumbai, Pune, Nashik and Nagpur. Unlike Mumbai which has few historic sites, Aurangabad has is tourist hub surrounded by many historical memorials and caves some of which are UNESCO heritage sites. This could make competition for Mumbai who is invariably happening ways to hike touristry in the metropolis. Recently, Mumbai has introduced ‘fort touristry ‘ ( Buch, 2011 ) . These garrisons will be able to pull more tourers, but have been ill preserved and instead than being restored have been tampered with. Tourists want to be introduced to new civilization. The civilization of Aurangabad is still really much intact, contrast Mumbai who civilization is profoundly blended with western civilization.
The metropolis of Mumbai has done a hapless occupation at seeking to continue the few memorials they already have. These memorials are a portion of their heritage, but they make it seem they no longer have any pride in their ain civilization. This could besides be said about the nutrient in Mumbai. As mentioned earlier, Mumbai offers culinary arts from all over the universe, with Chinese being most prevalent. Harmonizing to the Travel Industry Association of America and the National Restaurant Association ( 2008 ) , nutrient is cardinal to make up one’s minding holiday finishs for at least 25 % of leisure travellers. Mumbai has non made any attempt to advance their nutrient, which is an facet of their civilization.
The province of Kerala, located in southwesterly India could besides make competition. Tourist looking for Sun, sea, and sand can happen it in this province. Kerala was named by National Geographic Traveler as one of the Ten Paradises of the World. Bombay does offer Sun, sea and sand from its celebrated Juhu Beach and Chowpatty. Unfortunately, because of the badly contaminated H2O, it is advised non to swim. Other than being a Eden, what makes Kerala unique is its ecotourism inducements, which it is good known for. Eco-friendly topographic points can be a determinant factor as to why people would take one topographic point over another. Mumbai has become the new pollution capital with the rapid population growing and increase in figure of cars. What may do Kerala more desirable is its alone civilization, as it managed to stay organic and rich in its heritage.
In many finishs, the ‘cultural industries ‘ have been recognized as holding an of import relationship with touristry. As touristry bit by bit shifts off from its anterior attractive force of landscapes and natural resources, tourers are going more interested with the symbolic and centripetal ingestion of images and thoughts associated with peculiar finishs ( Arzeni, 2009 ) . An illustration would be Bollywood, or the Hindi film. It has become a major portion of Mumbai civilization. Like Hollywood is associated with L.A. , Bollywood is associated with Mumbai. Mumbai is the largest movie manufacturer of Hindi movie. Tour companies now offer Bollywood circuit bundles, which offer tours around Film City and in the studios, every bit good as the occupants of Bollywood histrions. It is non a historic site, nor is it monumental, but it is one of the most popular attractive forces in Mumbai.
Peoples want to travel to finishs that are linked with peculiar celebrated people, events, and they want to see the sights and sounds. ( Arzeni, 2009 ) . Though non traditionally portion of Indian civilization and non found in other parts of India, Mumbai is known for its vivacious night life. A typical dark out would be researching one of the many bars and clubs the metropolis has to offer. This is merely another illustration of how a host community fulfilled the tourer desire of familiar installations. The fact that tourists merely desire a speedy glimpse of the local ambiance, a brief expression at local life, and no consciousness or even involvement creates a loss in genuineness which means accommodating to the gustatory sensation to the tourers demands and non taking the clip to truly understand the locals and their civilization.
Culture has been defined in a figure of ways, but to merely set it, it is the erudite and shared behaviour of a community of interacting human existences. When tourers arrive to a finish, they bring their civilization which is so learned and shared by the host communities. Though there is no uncertainty that civilization and touristry are related, it can beef up the attraction and fight of a topographic point and the same clip hurt it. Mumbai is continually finding ways to advance touristry to their metropolis although they have already established themselves as a popular tourer finish for both leisure and concern travellers. What started out as seven islands occupied by Koli fisherman, has developed into the one of the largest and richest metropolitans in the universe. Tourism is one of the largest and fastest turning planetary touristry markets and states that are dependent upon it will happen ways to pull tourers, even if it means changing their civilization to suit the demands of the tourer. We see how negatively touristry can impact the civilization of one ‘s community, but it besides has its positive facet. Interaction with the local community can alter their perceptual experience about the topographic point they had before, dispel any negative stereotypes and are able to larn something about another civilization.