This paper considers touristry policy in Singapore with specific mention to the state little offshore islands which are being developed for touristry. It explains the characteristics of the St John ‘s islands selected for inclusion in the instance survey and discourse them as tourer attractive forces within the context of direction, planning and development issues. Attention is besides given to inquiries of resource protection and the publicity of ecotourism. Although the fortunes of Singapore are extremely typical, scrutiny of the instance illustrates the challenges confronting those responsible for the direction of such sites as tourer attractive forces, including procuring an appropriate balance between public and private sector engagement and between preservation of natural resources and their development for touristry.
Such a balance is critical in chase of sustainability, integrating economic, environmental and societal dimensions. ( developing and pull offing little islands )
Table of Contentss
St John ‘s Island, antecedently known as Pulau Sekijang Bendara, is situated six and a half kilometres south of Singapore. The island was antecedently occupied by patients diagnosed with Hansen’s disease in 1874 and utilize as a quarantine island. In the 1950s, it became a penal colony for political captives and secret societies ‘ ringleaders expecting exile.
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.wildsingapore.com/places/sji.
htmIn 1975, St John ‘s Island was redeveloped into a 30 nine hectares holiday finish for both immature and old, pulling particularly nature lovers. The island is presently managed by the Sentosa Leisure Group and there are day-to-day public ferries to the island. The ferry services are provided by Singapore Island Cruise from Marina South Pier. Island admittance is 15 dollars, inclusive of the ferry to and fro.
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.islandcruise.com.sg/about-us.htmlAt present, there are programs to link St John Island together with nearby Lazarus and Kusu Island to increase visitant ‘s traffic to the southern islands, with the connexion of Lazarus Island already in topographic point. ( developing and managing )In add-on, there are programs to develop the country into a resort which comprises a five-star and a three-star hotel, one hundred and 80 stores, 50 eating houses, 70 houses and one 1000 seven hundred flats. ( developing and pull offing little islands ) The undertaking is nevertheless still in its babyhood phase.This study will supply an penetration to the resources and installations offered by St John ‘s Island every bit good as expression into impacts faced by the island.
The current schemes adopted by the direction of St John ‘s Island will besides be discussed and recommendations will be made for the direction to follow new schemes or better on bing schemes. The sustainability of St John ‘s Island as a vacation finish will be evaluated at the same clip.
Resources and Facilities
Talking to one of the staff from the Sentosa Leisure Group, it is noted that the shore of St John ‘s Island is surrounded by coral reefs and a rare species of Rhizophora mangle tree, named Avicennia Marina can be found on the island. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //mangrove.nus.
edu.sg/guidebooks/text/1050.htm ) In add-on, occasional sightings of mahimahis on the island have besides been reported.Facilities on the island such as chalets, cantonment sites, swimming lagunas, lavatories, picnic evidences, barbecue cavities, trekking paths and association football Fieldss was besides observed to be present. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.wildsingapore.com/places/sji.
htmThe island besides houses authorities installations such as the Tropical Marine Science Institute ( TMSI ) , a research administration set up by the National University of Singapore and Agri-Food & A ; Veterinary Authority of Singapore ‘s Marine Aquaculture Centre ( MAC ) . hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sentosa.com.sg/en/nature/southern-islands/st-johns-island/TMSI is a research administration set up by the National University of Singapore. Its intent is to transport out research and development plans, supplying necessary information to guarantee good coastal zone direction and sustainable development of marine resources.
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.mpa.gov.
sg/sites/global_navigation/news_center/mpa_news/mpa_news_detail.page? filename=980721-.xmlIn add-on, TMSI conducts organised short Tourss to its research installation on the island. Nature walks around the island can besides be arranged but on an ad hoc footing and requires a minimal group size of 15. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.tmsi.nus.edu.
sg/outreachMAC was set up to develop and tackle engineering to ease the development and enlargement of large-scale hatchery andA fish agriculture production in Singapore and the part. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ava.gov.sg/AgricultureFisheriesSector/TechServicesAndResearch/MarineAquacultureCentre/Talking to the assorted visitants on the island, it was noted that most visitants who on a regular basis visit the island were angling partisans and workers on the island ‘s research installations.
Few locals or tourers were observed at the island and even if there was, the continuance of stay on the island will non be more than two hours. It was besides noted that visitants arrival normally peak over the weekends and in recent old ages, figure of visitants have rush.Given the broad scope of resources and installations, a visitant to St John ‘s Island will be able to plunge in assorted activities in a twenty-four hours or remain on the island for a dark as a ‘get off ‘ from the hustling metropolis of Singapore.
Impacts Faced by St John ‘s Island
As St John ‘s Island is located off from the mainland, there are bound to be fewer visitants to the island. However, fewer visitants do non interpret to zero impacts as ( Visitor direction ) argued that any little signifier of addition in recreational usage of national Parkss and protected countries can impact the quality of natural and cultural resources. The following subdivision will analyze the impacts the island is having, with the focal point chiefly on negative environmental impacts.EnvironmentalVisitors to St John ‘s Island come chiefly via ferry from the mainland and they normally bring ‘foreign objects ‘ ( normally dirt from their places and vesture ) to the island. This will do the disturbance of the vegetations and zoologies biodiversity when the visitants transfer the ‘foreign objects ‘ unwittingly.
This is furthered supported by ( Singapore ‘s touristry industry ) which noted that immense figure of visitants visit the Australia ‘s Great Barrier Reef each twelvemonth and through their ignorance, leave behind ‘foreign objects ‘ and caused the disturbance of some of the delicate vegetations and zoologies.Talking to the staff on St John ‘s Island, it was noted that during the weekends, the figure of visitants increase well compared to weekdays. Though their continuance of stay is by and large non more than two hours, they leave behind litter as visitants consumed their jammed nutrient and drinks, even when rubbish bins were found easy on the island.
The litter left behind might harm the life beings on the island as they might be trap in it. This is furthered supported by ( Singapore ‘s touristry industry ) statement that big sum of waste leads to pollution and might impact the environment indirectly.Given the addition in figure of visitants during the weekends, the figure of ferries that pullover at St John ‘s Island necessarily increased. The addition in ferries will lend further in fouling the air as the ferry emits pollutants from its Diesel engines.In the long tally, environmental debasement will happen with the many impacts and might do a diminution in visitants. This is farther supported by ( Percepts of environmental impacts ) which argues that environmental debasement exist ab initio but the addition of visitants have besides increase the rate of debasement. At interest will be the supports of the corals, loss of beach sand and taint of coastal Waterss as noted by ( Wilkinson, 1989 ) .
Current Schemes adopted by St John ‘s Island
( research to back up ) noted that as the figure of visitants addition, non merely can the environmental resources of the country be affected, the quality of the visitant experience will be affected every bit good.
The addition in Numberss of visitants can caused greater societal impacts such as crowding, struggle, and related variables. The following subdivision will analyze the schemes presently adopted by the island.Site Management StrategyIn order to keep the visitant experience on St John ‘s Island, it is apparent that assorted visitant direction and site direction schemes are already in topographic point. One outstanding site direction scheme that was observed at St John ‘s Island is districting. For the zoning scheme, St John ‘s Island utilises the recreational chance spectrum ( ROS ) attack.ROS as noted by D. Kliskey ( 1998 ) is a planning technique used widely to section a topographic point into different countries to suit the different demands of users. At St John ‘s Island, the country is demarcated into five chief zones for fishing, barbequing, swimming, bivouacing and research and development ( R & A ; D ) .
Therefore, visitant ‘s struggle is greatly reduced as ROS provides a scope of diversion scenes to provide to the different demands of the visitants ( D. Kliskey, 1998 ) .In add-on, districting restrict handiness and safeguard more vulnerable locations on the island, cut downing harm to the island ‘s delicate resources ( developing and pull offing little islands ) .Visitor Management StrategyWhile the demand to cut down struggle among visitants is addressed, there is besides a demand to turn to the visitant ‘s behavior and to control the figure of visitants. Therefore, at St John ‘s Island, visitant direction schemes such as codification of behavior and user fees were observed to be present and hold proven to be effectual by ( visitor direction ) .Signboards ( See Appendix ) were observed to be erected at assorted locations to remind visitants of the bash ‘s and don’ts.
The brawny entryway fee of 15 dollars besides acts as hindrance to some visitants, therefore cut downing the figure of visitants to the island.
Harmonizing to ( Singapore ‘s touristry industry ) , sustainable touristry is defined as ‘tourism activities go oning which will non change the environment to the extent that any harm is irreversible or impede any future development of the country ‘ .In order for St John Island to be sustainable in the long tally, it is recommended that the direction expression into more ways to cut down the impacts. The following subdivision will concentrate on recommendations for St John ‘s Island.Site ManagementGiven that ROS is already in topographic point in St John ‘s Island, it is recommended that the direction follow another signifier of attack to its site direction scheme. The direction should see utilizing the visitant experience and resource protection ( VERP ) attack.VERP is defined as a ‘planning and direction model that focuses on visitant usage impacts on the visitant experience and the park resources.
Thesiss impacts are chiefly attributable to visitor behavior, usage degrees, types of usage, timing of usage, and location of usage ‘ . ( pigram p.172 )The acceptance of VERP will let for a comprehensive determination doing procedure based on a hierarchy. It besides combines societal scientific discipline rules and selling in developing and pull offing visitant chances. This is in blunt contrast compared to ROS where implicit in rules must be accepted by directors before any options or determinations can be made. In add-on, ROS is non able to get by with any dissension among stakeholders.
( pigram p. 176 )Therefore, utilizing VERP allows for a faster reaction to any alterations and at the same clip, is able to supervise visitant impacts every bit good as alterations to the landscapes. Despite following VERP, more can be done to pull off the behavior of visitants.Visitor ManagementAs noted earlier on in the study, despite the handiness of rubbish bins, visitants are still littering. Hence, it is recommended that closed-circuit telecasting system ( CCTVs ) are installed around the island. This will non merely move as a hindrance for visitants but at the same clip, heighten the security around the island.
This is farther supported by ( researching the function ) that installing of CCTVs will increase the general public sense of safety and deter wrongdoers from perpetrating offenses.In add-on, more can be done to educate visitants on the harm they will bring down on the environment through their actions. The direction could expose marks that integrated history lessons or general cognition. By instruction, visitants will be more receptive and alterations to their behavior will be noted through their actions. ( Tilden,1967 )
Challenges in Execution
Given the strong force per unit area to increase touristry growing, struggles between development and preservation are inevitable, with already some grounds of inauspicious environmental impacts. Anxieties have been raised about the deductions of the alterations on St John ‘s, Lazarus and Kusu Island and frights voiced that the islands will go another Sentosa.
( developing and pull offing little islands )While there is considerable green screen at that place, much of the original secondary flora has been disturbed and the beaches and lagunas are mostly unreal creative activities. Many of the native coastal Rhizophora mangle swamps have besides been lost and renewal, together with landscape gardening, has upset the natural ecosystems. ( developing and pull offing little islands )Therefore, the execution of schemes at St John Island is a challenge due to force per unit areas from the society and the environment.
This is farther supported by ( visitor direction ) which argues that to pull off touristry in a sustainable manner is a hard procedure. It will necessitate careful consideration and long term thought of how visitor activities and environment will interact.Hence, any farther execution of scheme will hold to travel through the assorted authorities and private bureaus involve.
For illustration, the Singapore Tourism Board ( STB ) wants to increase the figure of visitants to the Southern Islands while the society is concern about the harm it will convey. At the other terminal, the Sentosa Leisure Group wishes to construct installations to suit the addition in Numberss of tourers but is unable to make so as it might damage the environment in the long tally.This statement is supported by ( developing and pull offing little islands ) which mentions that the public and private sectors have expressed their purposes of conserving green infinites. The Southern Islands undertaking besides professes to hold a strong preservation component and the STB has promised that visitants will be able to bask eighty per cent of the country in its natural province.
Sustainability of St John ‘s Island
This gives rise to the inquiry of whether turning St John ‘s Island into a new vacation finish by the assorted stakeholders will be sustainable in the long tally for St John ‘s Island.Butler explains why touristry will go unsustainable utilizing a life rhythm theoretical account.
He describes how ab initio a little figure of adventuresome tourers explore a natural attractive force, taking to the engagement of local occupants and subsequent development of the country as a tourer finish. The figure of tourers thenceforth grows, finally consolidating and ‘maturing ‘ into aggregate touristry. Unless the touristry merchandises are rejuvenated, the consequence is stagnancy and eventual diminution through overexploitation beyond the finish ‘s carrying capacity ( including visitants ‘ inauspicious impact on the environment ) . Butler stressed that without control and direction, environmental debasement is inevitable one time transporting capacity has been reached and so exceeded, doing aggregate touristry unsustainable.
( Singapore ‘s touristry industry )Presently, St John ‘s Island could be at the phase of subsequent development of the country as a tourer finish. The development could either degrade the natural countries already in topographic point or generate consciousness to protect it. ( visitor direction )Therefore, it is of import to protect the resources in the country as it is the resources that created involvement in the development of the country.
( Sharpley, 2000 ; Bianchi, 2004 ; Dodds, 2007 ) . This will guarantee the sustainability of the attractive force and guarantee that it will non go unsustainable as seen in the theoretical account by Butler.
As the figure of visitants addition, the natural ecosystem will necessarily endure harm one manner or another.
Tourism development, like most economic activities, involves both costs and benefits that must be evaluated and weighed.Singapore and its islands are advancing themselves as holding ecotourism attractive forces, but ecotourism in practise embodies the hard relationship between touristry and the physical environment. While presented as a defender of the environment, it can besides endanger its quality and has been dismissed a commercial self-interest. ( developing and pull offing little islands )Local engagement and support for touristry and preservation are critical to prolong effectual and efficient direction of a park. ( Perceptions of environmental impacts )